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APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA DEVELOPMENT OF APARTHEID BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
DEVELOPMENT OF APARTHEID Apartheid was continued and developed further by the prime ministers who followed Malan: - Strijdom (1954-8), Verwoerd (1958-66) and Vorster (1966-78) The main features of apartheid: 1. There was complete separation of blacks and whites as far as possible at all levels. In country areas blacks had to live in special reserves, in urban areas they had separate townships built at suitable distances from the white residential areas
If an existing black township was thought to be too close to a 'white' area, the whole community was uprooted and 're- grouped' somewhere else to make separation as complete as possible . There were separate buses, coaches, trains, cafes, toilets, parks benches, hospitals, beaches, picnic areas, sports and even churche:s . Black children went to separate schools and were given a much inferior education. . But complete separation was impossible because over half the non-white population worked in white-owned mines, factories and other businesses The economy would have collapsed if all non-whites had been moved to reserves
In addition, virtually every white household had at least two African servants.
2. Every person was given a racial classification and an identity card. There were strict pass laws which meant that black Africans had to stay in their reserves or in their townships unless they were travelling to a white area to work, in which case they would be issued with passes. Otherwise all travelling was forbidden without police permission.
3. Marriage and sexual relations between whites and non-whites were forbidden; this was to preserve the purity of the white race Police spied shamelessly on anybody suspected of breaking the rules
4. Under the homeland system, the government attempted to divide South Africa into a number of separate states, each of which was supposed to develop into a separate nation-state for a different ethnic group - The Bantu Self-Government Act (1959) set up seven regions called Bantustans, based on the original African reserves lt was claimed that they would eventually move towards self- government In 1969 it was announced that the first Bantustan, the Transkei, had become 'independent'. However, the outside world dismissed this with contempt since the South African government continued to control the Transkei's economy and foreign affairs.
The whole policy was criticized because the Bantustan areas covered only about 13 per cent of the country's total area; over 8 million black people were crammed into these relatively small areas, which were vastly overcrowded and unable to support the black populations adequately. They became very little better than rural slums, but the government ignored the protests and continued its policy; by 1980 two more African 'homelands', Bophuthatswana and Venda, had received 'independence'
5. Africans lost all political rights, and their representation in parliament, which had been by white MPs, was abolished.
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