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Chapter 3- Arts of the Mauryan Period
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This lesson is on the pillars of Mauryan times specifically on the Sarnath pillar.

Arpita Prakash
YouTuber NCERTs series initiator at Unacademy 'Educator of the Month' for Feb'19 CBSE 0.1% Merit Certificate holder in Mathematics

Unacademy user
mam please do a course on the subsequent chapters
Mam it's excellent! thanks for your work please come up with further lessons asap!! and please finish soon 🙏 thanks!
Arpita Prakash
3 months ago
Note making part1 video done now https://youtu.be/77regqGJX0E
mam its really helpful and excellent!Mam, please make courses on sociology also!thanks!
Arpita Prakash
3 months ago
Note making part1 video done now https://youtu.be/77regqGJX0E
  1. 1. Introduction: 6th cent BC- beg of new religious and social movements (Buddhism and Jainism) in Gangetic valley part of Shraman tradition, opposed Varna & Jati systems of Hindu religion->Magadha- powerful kingdom . By 3rd c. BC- large part of India under Mauryan control Most powerful Mauryan king- Ashoka- patronised Shraman tradition in 3rd c BC Multiple forms of worship prevalent Yaksha worship( even before and after advent of Buddhism; assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism) and mother goddesses 2. Pillars, Sculptures and Rock-cut Architecture: Buddhist tradition- construction of stupas and viharas, as part of monastic establishments stone pillars, rock cut caves, monumental fig sculptures Mauryan pillars rock cut displayed carver's skills; Achamenian pillars- constructed in pieces by mason Stone pillars- inscriptions engraved on them Top portion of pillars.capital figures-bull, lion,elephant etc .Vigorous & carved standing on square or circular abacus Abacuses- decorated with stylised lotuses Some pillars with capital figures found at Basarah-Bakhira, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa, and Sarnath


  2. 3. Lion Capital (Mauryan pillar capital), at Sarnath, near Varanasi: Finest eg of Mauryan sculptural tradition, built by Ashoka . Also our National emblem (Capital without crowning wheel and lotus base) In commemoration of historical event of first sermon or the Dhammachakrapravartana by Buddha at Sarnath . Originally consisted of 5 component parts- shaft, lotus bell base, drum on bell base with 4 animals proceeding clockwise, figures of 4 majestic addorsed lions and crowning element, Dharamchakra, a large wheel (now in broken condition in Sarnath museum) Now capital kept in Sarnath museum, has 4 massive lions firmly seated back to back on a circular abacus, heavily polished surface( typical of Mauryan period) of sculpture, weight of body of each lion shown by stretched muscles of feet, strong facial musculature of lions Abacus has depiction of a chakra( wheel)with 24 spokes in all 4 directions and a bull, elephant, horse and a lion between every chakra is finely carved, Chakra Motif represents Dhammachkra in entire Buddhist art Each animal figure, despite sticking with surface is voluminous ,its posture creating movement in circular abacus( which is supported by an inverted lotus capital) . Each lotus petal is sculpted considering its density; lower portions have curved plains neatly carved e Can be viewed from all points- pillar image Lion capital also found at Sanchi, in dilapidated condition