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Chapter 2- Arts of Indus Valley
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This lesson describes about background of IVC arts, stone statues and bronze statues.

Arpita Prakash
NCERTs series initiator at Unacademy 'Educator of the Month' for Feb'19 CBSE 0.1% Merit Certificate holder in Mathematics

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  1. BACKGROUND of Arts of IVC: Characteristic features: Emerged during Second half of 3rd millennium BCE . Two major IVC sites along Indus River-Cities of Harappa in North and Art forms- sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewellery, terracotta figures etc Realistic delineation of human and animal figures, unique anatomical details, careful modelling of animal figures in case of terracotta art->fine artistic sensibilities and vivid imagination Mohenjodaro in South (both in Pakistan)- one of the earliest examples of civic planning public baths, etc Not abundant, but refined statues ( in stone, bronze, terracotta) found in . Arranged in a grid-like pattern : houses, markets, storage facilities, offices, . Highly developed drainage system Harappan sites

  2. STONE STATUES * Excellent Examples of 3-D volume handling : Harappa and Moheniodaro * In stone- 2 male figures o a torso in red sandstone (fig - Harappa) o a bust of a bearded man in steatite (fig- Mohenjodaro ) . Bearded man figure- interpreted as priest, draped in a shawl coming under right arm, covering left shoulder; shawl decorated with trefoil patterns, eyes little elongated and half closed as in meditative concentration, well formed and medium sized nose, average size mouth, close cut moustache , short beard and whiskers; ears resembling double shells with a hole in middle; hair parted in middle, plain woven fllet passed round head; armlet worn on right hand & holes around neck suggest necklace

  3. BRONZE CASTING: Wide scale practice by Harappans,techniques practiced today too in many parts Broze statue( both animal and human) made using 'lost wax' technique: o wax figures first covered with a coating of clay -> allowed to dry -> wax heated ->molten wax drained out through tiny hole made in clay cover->lling of hollow moulds with molten metal which took original shape of the object -> metal cooled-> complete removal of clay cover o One best e.g. of human figure- Statue of 'Dancing Girl' o Animal- Buffalo with it's uplift head, back and sweeping horns and goat Bronze casting popular at all major centres of IVC . Other imp figures: o Copper dog, bird of Lothal, bronze fig of a bull from Kalibangan . Metal casting- continuous tradition- Excellent examples of metal cast sculptures are late Harappan and Chalcolithic sites like Daimabad in Maharashtra o Mainly of human and animal figures