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Chapter 2- Arts of Indus Valley
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This lesson is on seals , beads and ornaments of IVC along with some map work

Arpita Prakash
NCERTs series initiator at Unacademy 'Educator of the Month' for Feb'19 CBSE 0.1% Merit Certificate holder in Mathematics

Unacademy user
sir question hindi me divine
dholavira is located at Gujarat
Dholavira is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India.
  1. SEAL Thousands of seals, usually made of steatite, and occasionally of agate, copper, chert, faience and terracotta ; with beautiful figures of animals, such as unicorn bull, rhinoceros, tiger, elephant, bison, goat buffalo etc * Purpose of seals production- mainly commercial e Used as amulets, carried on persons of their owners . Standard Harappan seal- square plaque 2*2 square e Every seal engraved in pictographic script which is * Some seals also found in gold and Ivory with great (ike ID card) inches, usually made from soft river stone, steatite yet to be deciphered variety of motifs, most often of animals incl bull with or without hump, elephant, tiger, goat and monsters e Sometimes trees or human figures also depicted

  2. Most remarkable-Pashupati seal or of female deity ( diff interpretations )- with a figure in centre and animals around human fig seated cross legged to its right side elephant and tiger, to its left- rhinoceros and buffalo; two antelopes below seat - roughly between 2500-1500 BCE in many sites like Mohenjo..

  3. Figures and animals carved in intaglio on surfaces Square or rectangular copper tablets( may be amulets), with an animal or human fig on one side, and inscription on other, or inscription on both sides Figures and signs carefully cut with a burin Inscriptions on copper tablets seem to be associated with animals portrayed on them

  4. Ornaments( well crafted) used for decoration- made from diff materials ranging from precious metals and gemstones to bone and baked clay . Commonly worn by both sexes - necklaces, fillets, armlets and finger rings Wore by women-girdles, earrings, and anklets Hoards of jewellery at Mohenjodaro and Lothal- necklaces of gold and semi precious stones, copper bracelets and beads, gold earrings, head ornaments, faience pendants and buttons, beads of steatite and gemstones . At Farmana in Haryana- cemetery- dead bodies buried with ornaments Factories discovered at Chanhudaro and Lothal- well developed bead industry Beads made of cornelian, amethyst, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite, turquoise, lapis lazuli etc, also manufactured by metals like copper, bronze, gold and by shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay (great technical skills)

  5. Various bead shapes- disc shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel shaped and segmented Some beads made of two or more stones cemented together, some of stone with gold covers, some decorated by incising or painting and some had designs etched onto them . Harappan people- made brilliantly naturalistic models of animals, especially . Discovery of large no of spindles and spindle whorls in houses of IVC- . Finds of whorls made of expensive faience as also of cheap pottery and shell monkeys and squirrels; used as pin heads and beads spinning of cotton and wool very common both rich and poor practised spinning

  6. * Discovery ot large no ot spindles and spinale whorls in houses ot IV spinning of cotton and wool very common . Finds of whorls made of expensive faience as also of cheap pottery and shell- both rich and poor practised spinning Men and women wore two separate pieces of attire similar to dhoti and shawl o Shawl covered left shoulder passing below right shoulder . Archaeological findings- People of IVC- conscious of fashion o Different hairstyles and wearing of a beard o Cinnabar- used as cosmetic o Knowledge of face paint, lipstick and collyrium (eyeliner) Used stones in construction- by stone structural remains at Dholavira . Skilled artists and craftsmen- in metal casting, stone carving, making and painting pottery, making terracotta images using simplified motifs of animals, plants and birds

  7. Important sites in India (all map works) Lothal and Dholavira ( Gujarat) Rakhigarhl ( Haryana) Ropar (Punjab ) Kallbangan and Balathal (Rajasthan) Etc