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Chapter 1- Prehistoric Rock Paintings
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This lesson deals with different rock paintings of Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Chalcolithic periods

Arpita Prakash
NCERTs series initiator at Unacademy 'Educator of the Month' for Feb'19 CBSE 0.1% Merit Certificate holder in Mathematics

Unacademy user
nice mam....great affert ,,,????
copper period... when cu and bronze came to use
Chalcolithic period or copper age is the beginning of copper metallurgy.
Ma'am please upload part 2
relating to or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC, chiefly in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper.
thank you so much maam
  1. UPPER PALAEOLITHIC: . Paintings- linear representations, in green( of dancers) and dark red (of hunters) .Huge animal figures-bisons, elephants, tigers, rhinos, boars besides stick -like human figures Few wash paintings, but mostly filled with geometric patterns IMAGES

  2. MESOLITHIC PERIOD Largest no of paintings Themes multiply, but size smaller . Predomination of hunting scenes o People hunting in groups; armed with barbed spears, pointed sticks, arrows and bows o Primitive men with traps and snares, probably to catch animals o Hunters- simple clothes and ornaments o Men- adorned with elaborate head dresses, or painted with masks oElephants, bison, tiger, boar, deer, antelope, leopard, panther, fish, frog, lizard, squirrel, rhinoceros, birds o Many paintings of animals - chasing men, or being chased and hunted by men o Hunting Paintings- Fear of animals or feeling of tenderness and love for them o Few engravings representing animals Animals- painted in Naturalistic style; Humans- depicted in Stylistic manner Humans o Women- painted- both nude and clothed o Young and old equally found in paintings o Children- running, jumping, playing o Common theme community dances o People gathering fruit / honey from tress; women grinding and preparing food o Family life also depicted o Hand Prints, Fist Prints and Dots made by fingertips

  3. CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD Paintings reveal association, contact, mutual exchange of requirements of cave dwellers with settled agri communities of Malwa plains Many times - common motifs (Eg : cross hatched squares, lattices) in Chalcolithic ceramics and rock paintings . Pottery and metal tools Disappearance of vividness and vitality of earlier periods Many colours used various shades of white, yellow, orange , red ochre, purple, brown, green and black (Fav colours - white and red) Paints made by grinding various rocks and minerals o Red- from haematite (Geru in india) o Green-from green variety of stone Chalcedony o White- probably from limestone o Rock of mineral grounded into powder- mixed with water and some thick or sticky substance like animal fat/gum/resin from trees; brushes made of plant fibre o Colours survived for thousands of years, remained intact because of chemical reaction of oxide present on rock surface

  4. . Paintings on walls and ceilings of rock shelters . Some reported from inhabited places, some from places that seem not to have even living spaces at all ( may be of some religious importance) Some paintings very high up on rock shelters or close to its ceiling- probably for people to be able to notice them from a distance Paintings don't lack pictorial quality, despite limitations like acute working conditions, inadequate tools, materials etc Men- appear adventurous and rejoicing lives . Animals- more youthful and majestic . Pictures depict in a dramatic way, struggle for survival by both men and animals o Eg: Different scenes- Group of people hunting a bison, then some injured men lying scattered on ground, animal shown in agony of death, men depicted dancing .Paintings of individual animals show artist's mastery of skill- realistic maintenance of both proportion and tonal effect Many sites- new painting on top of an older painting - Eg at Bhimbetka ( about 20 layers of paintings, one on top of another) o May be bcz artist didn't like his creation so painted new above the earlier one o Some paintings , places considered scared or special o Area might have been used by diff generations of people at diff times