2nd Aug 2018 THE HINDU Editorial Analysis ha ii
No easy head counts e The differences in the size and share of population across States in India in 2011 as against that in 1971 have raised widespread apprehension regarding the disadvantage of States that have performed better in population stabilisation efforts while working out their share of funds Whether it be population size or its share, the mutual distance between States has become larger since 1971. Also, a particular demographic divide has been observed between States with an attained replacement level of fertility and those yet to attain the same Hence, raw population size or share being considered in determining the allocation of funds will make those States with moderate or low population stabilisation efforts winners, while those States that have done extremely ..
....well in achieving the national goals set in the Five-Year Plans to reach replacement level of fertility will be losers . However, the shift in benchmark for reference population from 1971 to 2011 makes sense on account of the transformation of the population composition of States owing to attained increase in longevity and lowering levels of fertility Moreover, as a third of India's population is mobile, changes in population structures due to mobility would be also considered as a result of this shift. For instance, as in the 2011 Census, 37.46% of the population is reported as migrants based on the place of last residence According to this criterion, 51.04% of the population in Maharashtra is migrant while the figure is 29.60% in Uttar Pradesh. When the Centre
....transfers financial resources to States, it is possible to adjust the transfer based on State in-migration and out-migration rates . For instance, inter-State migrants from West Bengal and Assam to Kerala need attention from the State of Kerala and would thus require additional resources to accommodate its in-migrants with support services. Such migrants are to be served at the States of destination and not at the States of origin e The use of population figures in determining weights for financial allocation across States involves population shares on the one hand and population size to compute per-capita assessment of other aspects on the other. In either case, the distances between States have widened, with the demographically advanced ones being at a disadvantage in comparison with those that are yet to catch up
. In such a circumstance, it would be wise to avoid using raw population size or shares in the calculations of determining these weights. The solution lies in looking at it in terms of measures that moderate such distances through the recognition of differential needs of different States . While levels of dependency need to be recognised by the State towards human capital formation, longevity differences need to be taken into account for their bearing on social protection. We should note that States that have achieved high human development also need to sustain the achievement For instance, on an average, a Keralite lives 23 years after completing 60 years due to low mortality and high life expectancy. Of course, Kerala has the lowest rate of population growth in India among the States. Therefore, the financial allocation should not be reduced merely on the basis of slow..
...rate of growth of its population . This is because the elderly need to be looked after by providing health care and social security, in addition to facilitating dignity at death. We should add quality to the added years in Kerala and this requires financial resources for the State of Kerala o For example, the population shares of Kerala and Uttar Pradesh (as of 2011) stand at 2.81% and 18.78%, respectively. If these shares are read while accommodating the differences in child population shares of 35.69% and 23.44%, then the moderation in the gap of population shares becomes 9.34% for Uttar Pradesh and 1.57% for Kerala (Moderation in population share means a kind of convergence in the gap in population share which is different from that of the raw population share)
* Apart from these two aspects-dependency and longevity India's population has become increasingly mobile with the magnitude of internal migration now amounting to a third of the entire population. Such mobility has resulted in 'losing and gaining' States, with negative and positive net migratiorn . Considering the population dynamics in terms of varying levels of dependency and workforce structure, population equivalence needs to be worked out prior to adopting the Census population of 2011 as the basis for the distribution of Central grants * States such as Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are in their peak in demographic dividend and offer windows of economic opportunities for their youth, both in internal and international migration. The evidence is clear from the data available from the Ministry of External
..Affairs which indicate that Uttar Pradesh is the leading State in terms of sending emigrants to the Gulf in low-skilled and unskilled occupations This leading position was held for several years by States such as Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Now they are 'losing States' in terms of demographic dividend and entering into the second demographic transition population ageing The seven criteria for transfer of resources to States are: i] income distance [ii] tax effort [vii] fiscal discipline [iv] population [v] area [i] index of infrastructure [vi] fiscal capacity distance Hence, population equivalence (which will be in consideration of differential needs as dictated by its structure and composition) needs to.
...be computed and should replace the raw population figures which have become more divergent than what they were during in 1971
River of effluents . National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is a registered trust that run:s the 'Namami Gange' mission- India's most ambitious endeavour to clean the Ganga river. The NMCG has a Rs. 20,000-crore, centrally-funded, non- lapsable corpus and consists of nearly 288 projects The NMCG's thrust is on roping in the private sector to not only set up sewage treatment plants but also maintain them. In return, the government offers to contribute 40% of the capital costs upfront a disburse the rest- with a profit margin- over 15 years subject to performance indicators being met. The mission also has projects to clean the ghats, rid the river of biological contaminants and improve rural sanitation and afforestation
Union Water Resources Minister has promised that 80% of the river will be cleaned by May 2019. His predecessor, Uma Bharti, had promised a clean river by 2018. So far, the State governments have concentrated on superficially cleaning the river by using trash skimmers and improving crematoria-infrastructure The Union Water Resources Ministry has been focussed on ensuring a transparent tendering and bidding process. Only this year have treatment plants at Haridwar and Varanasi begun to be constructed. In May 2014, there were 31 treatment plants with a capacity of 485 MLD As of May 2018 94 projects, with a treatment capacity of 1.928 MLD, were under way. A financial audit in March suggested that while Rs. 20,601 crore had been sanctioned for 193 projects, only Rs. 4 actually been spent on theirimplementation 254 Grore had
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