The perpendicular force per unit area, or the stress generated at a point within a defined space, is termed as the pressure in the physical sciences. The quantity of pressure is scalar. It connects the normal force applied on the surface to the vector area element (a vector normal to the surface). The SI unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa), but it has several other units like N/m2 or psi. The types of pressure are atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure, differential pressure, and gauge pressure.
Derived and Fundamental Quantities
The independent quantities are termed as fundamental quantities. Units like C.G.S., M.K.S., F.P.S., and SI are used to measure such quantities termed as fundamental units.
The derived quantities are the quantities derived from the fundamental quantities. The units used to measure these quantities are termed derived units.
Dimension and Dimensional Analysis
The dimension is the expanded fundamental units, elevated to obtain one unit of a physical quantity.
Dimensional analysis is termed as the process of adjudicating the dimensions of physical quantities to check their relationships. The quantities can be stated as a relation of the fundamental dimensions, which are independent of numerical multiples and constants. It not only keeps the units the same but also helps in performing the mathematical calculations smoothly.
Application of dimensional analysis
To ensure the accuracy and consistency of dimensional equations
To determine the relationship between physical quantities in physical processes
To convert through one unit system to another
The dimensional formula of a derived quantity is an equation that shows the degrees to which the fundamental units must be increased to acquire one unit of that quantity. The term, MaLbTc is known as the dimensional formula, and the termed dimensions are the exponents a, b, and c.
Pressure is essentially characterised as the measure of force per unit area. The central issue when attempting to comprehend pressure is to ponder what occurs on the nuclear level in a fluid or gas at high tension. The constituent atoms are continually moving near, and this implies they are catching the dividers of the holder constantly. The more they move (because of higher temperatures), the more they find the dividers of the compartment and the higher the strain.
How much power is applied (push) on a surface for each unit region is characterised as pressure. It can likewise be characterised as the proportion of the power to the space (over which the power is acting).
P = F/A
Units of Pressure
There are different units to depict pressure. For pressure, the SI framework’s essential unit is Pascal (Pa), which is N/m2 (One Newton per square metre).
In Formula, we can express it as
Pa = N/m2 = kg/(m×s2 )
The SI unit of tension is the pascal (Pa).
Dimensional Formula for Pressure
The pressure is termed as force or thrust acting perpendicularly over the unit area of the surface, which is denoted by ‘P.’ Therefore,
P = F/A.
A: Unit area
The dimensional formula for the pressure can be defined as:
Pressure = Force/Area. … i
(Force = Mass x Acceleration); (Acceleration = Velocity / Time)
Therefore, the dimensional formula of force is equal to [M] x [LT-2] i.e. [MLT-2] … ii
The dimensional formula of area: [M0L2T0] i.e. [L2] … iii
From the values from equations (ii) and (iii)
P= Force/ Area
[MLT-2] x [L2]-1 = [M1L-1T-2]
Hence, the dimensional formula of pressure can be written as [M1L-1T-2].
Drawbacks of Dimensional Analysis
This approach is incapable of determining dimensionless quantities, neither can this approach calculate the proportionality constant. They can only be discovered through experimentation.
Trigonometric, logarithmic, and exponential functions fail to show any relevance to this approach.
Its usage limits on the physical quantities have more than three physical qualities.
The system is limited to defining the equations of the proportionality constant for a few cases.
This method fails in obtaining expressions if any of the sides of the equation has the addition or subtraction of physical quantities.
The pressure is a resultant of the force acting perpendicular over a surface unit area, which can be expressed through the dimensional formula defining its aspects of mass, length and timing. The dimensional analysis and the rules of homogeneity set up the grounds to compare the quantities of similar dimensions. It has various applications in the field of physics with few sets of limitations. The pressure exerted by the layers of earth is termed atmospheric pressure, which ranges low to high depending upon the various physical phenomena valuing 101,325 Pa at sea level.