JEE Exam » Difference Between » Voltage and Current

# Voltage and Current

It is essential to know the major differences between Current and Voltage. The following article will give an elaborated overview of the voltage as well as current.

Current and voltage are two dissimilar electrical quantities but they are also connected. Therefore, it is imperative to know the basics of voltage and current for electrical and electronic engineering and other related areas.

## What is Current?

Current is the rate of charge flow (electrons) moving through a circuit that is induced by the voltage. It is symbolised by the sign “I”. The SI unit of current is an ampere symbolised by “A”. If a one-coulomb charge moves through a conducting spot in one second, the amount of current is acknowledged as one ampere. Ampere (1A) of current is the 6.24×1018 electrons charge carrier flowing through a point in one second.

There are primarily two kinds of currents, i.e. AC and DC (Alternating Current & Direct Current).

AC Current: An AC (Alternating Current) constantly alters its direction and magnitude the whole time.

DC Current: A DC (Direct Current) has an invariable magnitude that doesn’t alter its polarity or direction the whole time.

The electronic current flow is negative to positive because of an enormous amount of negative charge carriers (electronic engineering), whereas in the conventional current streams from positive to negative (electrical engineering). Therefore, it is presumed for current direction flow whereas solving and scrutinising electric circuits. However, the amount of current is similar in both cases.

## What is Voltage?

The necessitated amount of energy to shift the unit charge from one point to another is identified as voltage. In other words, voltage is the latent difference force between two points in an electric field that induces current to run in the circuit.

Voltage is the outcome of electromotive force (EMF). It is symbolised by the sign of V. The SI unit of voltage is “volt”, which is also indicated by “V”. A volt is a potential difference that passes one joule of energy per coulomb charge between two points. One volt is the difference of electric positional equivalent to one ampere of current disperses one watt of power between two conducting points.

There are two essential kinds of voltages, i.e. Alternating Voltage and Direct Voltage.

Alternating Voltage: An AC voltage constantly alters its direction and magnitude the whole time. Alternators can produce alternating voltages.

Direct Voltage: DC Voltage has a stable magnitude that doesn’t alter its polarity the whole time. Direct voltage can be produced by electrochemical cells and batteries.

## Current and Voltage: Difference

Parametres

Current

Voltage

Meaning

Current is the rate of charge flow between two points induced by voltage. Or, the rate of movement of electrons is called current

Voltage is the potential difference between two tips in an electric field that induces a current to pass in the circuit

Sign

Current is symbolised by “I”

Voltage is symbolised by “V”

Unit

Ampere – Also called Amps, Amperage or just “A”

Volt – Also called Voltage or just “V”

Unit Charge

1 Coulomb / Second = 1 Ampere

1 Joule / Coulomb = 1 Volt

Formula

Current = Charge / Time

Voltage = Work done / Charge

Cause & Effect

Current is the effect induced by Voltage

Voltage is the cause of current (being a consequence)

Measuring device

An Ammeter (Ampere-metre) is employed to compute the value of current by connecting in series

A Voltmeter is employed to compute the value of voltage by connecting it in parallel

Kinds

Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC)

Alternating Voltage and Direct Voltage. (AC and DC Voltage)

Generated by

Voltage and EMF

Generator, Alternator, and Batteries

Value in Series Connection

Current is similar at every point in a series connection

Voltage is dissimilar and additive in a series circuit

Value in Parallel Connection

Current is dissimilar and additive in a parallel circuit

Voltage is similar at every point in a parallel connection

Drop and Loss

Drop and loss in current happens because of  Passive elements

Drop and loss in voltage happen because of Impedance (AC Resistance)

Polarity transformation

AC = Alternating Current alters its polarity whereas it can’t in DC = Direct Current

Alternating Voltage alters its polarity and magnitude whereas it remains steady in DC

Existence

Current doesn’t subsist without voltage as the voltage is the major cause to pass current excluding theoretical superconductors

Voltage can subsist devoid of current as it is the reason for the flowing charge.

### Conclusion

In electricity, current, and voltage are two basic and important quantities. As voltage is the reason for an occurrence and current is the consequence of that event. The dissimilarity between voltage and current can help us comprehend the basics better and comprehensively know their comparisons.

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