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Working Capital Financing - Spontaneous Sources or Negotiated Sources (in Hindi)
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Heena Malhotra
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  1. Management of Working Capital By Heena Malhotra


  2. After determining the amount of working capital required, the next step to be taken by the finance manager is to arrange the funds. As discussed earlier, it is advisable that the finance manager bifurcates the working capital requirements between the permanent working capital and temporary working capital. The permanent working capital is always needed irrespective of sales fluctuations, hence should be financed by the long-term sources such as debt and equity. On the contrary the temporary working capital may be financed by the short-term sources of finance. Broadly speaking, the working capital finance may be classified between the two categories: () Spontaneous sources; and (ii) Negotiable sources. By Heena Malhotra


  3. Spontaneous Sources: Spontaneous sources of finance are those which naturally arise in the course of business operations. Trade credit, credit from employees, credit om suie o ei n ma etdi respect. Negotiated Sources On the other hand the negotiated soures, as the name implies, are those which have to be specifcal negotiated with lenders say,commercial banks, fnancia lnstutin, general pubilc et. By Heena Malhotra


  4. The finance manager has to be very careful while selecting a particular source, or a combination thereof for financing of working capital. Generally, the following parameters will guide his decisions in this respect: C) Cost factor (i) Impact on credit rating () Feasibility (iv) Reliability (v) Restrictions (vi) Hedging approach or matching approach i.e., Financing of assets with the same maturity as of assets. By Heena Malhotra


  5. Financing of short-term working capital oSpontaneous sources O Trade Credit o Accrued Expenses o Bills Payable By Heena Malhotra


  6. Financing of short-term working capital o Indigenous Bankers O Installment Credit o Advances Accounts Receivable Credit Factoring O Deferred Incomes o Commercial Paper O WC Finance by Commercial Banks. By Heena Malhotra


  7. 1. Indigenous Bankers: o Private money-lenders and other country bankers used to be the only source of finance prior to the establishment of commercial banks. They used to charge very high rates of interest and exploited the customers to the largest extent possible. Now-a- days with the development of commercial banks they have lost their monopoly. o But even today some business houses have to depend uporn indigenous bankers for obtaining loans to meet their working capital requirements. By Heena Malhotra


  8. 2. Trade Credit: O Trade credit refers to the credit extended by the suppliers of goods in the normal course of business. As present day commerce is built uporn credit, the trade credit arrangement of a firm with its suppliers is an important source of short-term finance o The credit-worthiness of a firm and the confidence of its suppliers are the main basis of securing trade credit. It is mostly granted on an open account basis whereby supplier sends goods to the buyer for the payment to be received in future as per terms of the sales invoice. It may also take the form of bills payable whereby the buyer signs a bill of exchange payable on a specified future date. By Heena Malhotra


  9. o When a firm delays the payment beyond the due date as per the terms of sales invoice, it is called stretching accounts payable. A firm may generate additional short-term finances by stretching accounts payable, but it may have to pay penal interest charges as well as to forgo cash discount. If a firm delays the payment frequently, it adversely affects the credit worthiness of the firm and it may not be allowed such credit facilities in future. By Heena Malhotra


  10. 3. Installment Credit: O This is another method by which the assets are purchased and the possession of goods is taken immediately but the payment is made in installments over a pre-determined period of time. Generally, interest is charged on the unpaid price or it may be adjusted in the price. But, in any case, it provides funds for some time and is used as a source of short-term working capital by many business houses which have difficult fund position. By Heena Malhotra


  11. 4. Advances: o Some business houses get advances from their customers and agents against orders and this source is a short-term source of finance for them. It is a cheap source of finance and in order to minimize their investment in working capital, some firms having long production cycle, specially the firms manufacturing industrial products prefer to take advances from their customers. By Heena Malhotra


  12. 5. Factoring or Accounts Receivable Credit: o Another method of raising short-term finance is through accounts receivable credit offered by commercial banks and factors. A commercial bank may provide finance by discounting the bills or invoices of its customers. O Thus, a firm gets immediate payment for sales made on credit. A factor is a financial institution which offers services relating to management and financing of debts arising out of credit sales. Factoring is becoming popular all over the world on account of various services offered by the institutions engaged in it. o Factors render services varying from bill discounting facilities offered by commercial banks to a total takeover of administration of credit sales including maintenance of sales ledger, collection of accounts receivables, credit control and protection from bad debts, provision of finance and rendering of advisory services to their clients. Factoring may be on a recourse basis, where the risk of bad debts is borne by the client, or on a non-recourse basis, where the risk of credit is borne by the factor. By Heena Malhotra


  13. Financing of short-term working capital oSpontaneous sources O Trade Credit o Accrued Expenses o Bills Payable By Heena Malhotra


  14. O The maturity period of commercial paper, in India, mostly ranges from 91 to 180 days. It is sold at a discount from its face value and redeemed at face value on its maturity. Hence, the cost of raising funds, through this source, is a function of the amount of discount and the period of maturity and no interest rate is provided by the Reserve Bank of India for this purpose. Commercial paper is usually bought by investors including banks, insurance companies, unit trusts and firms to invest surplus funds for a short-period. A credit rating agency, called CRISIL, has been set up in India by ICICI and UTI to rate commercial papers. o Commercial paper is a cheaper source of raising short-term finance as compared to the bank credit and proves to be effective even during period of tight bank credit. However, it can be used as a source of finance only by large companies enjoying high credit rating and sound financial health. Another disadvantage of commercial paper is that it cannot be redeemed before the maturity date even if the issuing firm has surplus funds to pay back.


  15. (b) Cash Credits: oA cash credit is an arrangement by which a bank allows his customer to borrow money up to a certain limit against some tangible securities or guarantees. The customer can withdraw from his cash credit limit according to his needs and he can also deposit any surplus amount with him. O The interest in case of cash credit is charged on the daily balance and not on the entire amount of the account. For these reasons, it is the most favourite mode of borrowing by industrial and commercial concerns. By Heena Malhotra


  16. (a) Loans: o When a bank makes an advance in lump-sum against some security it is called a loan. In case of a loan, a specified amount is sanctioned by the bank to the customer. The entire loan amount is paid to the borrower either in cash or by credit to his account. The borrower is required to pay interest on the entire amount of the loan from the date of the sanction. o A loan may be repayable in lump sum or installments. Interest on loans is calculated at quarterly rests and where repayments are stipulated in installments, the interest is calculated at quarterly rests on the reduced balances. Commercial banks generally provide short-term loans up to one year for meeting working capital requirements. But now-a-days term loans exceeding one year are also provided by banks. The term loans may be either medium-term or long- term loans


  17. (c) Overdrafts: o Overdraft means an agreement with a bank by which a current account-holder is allowed to withdraw more than the balance to his credit up to a certain limit. There are no restrictions for operation of overdraft limits. The interest is charged on daily overdrawn balances. The main difference between cash credit and overdraft is that overdraft is allowed for a short period and is a temporary accommodation whereas the cash credit is allowed for a longer period. Overdraft accounts can either be clean overdrafts, partly secured or fully secured By Heena Malhotra


  18. (d) Purchasing and Discounting of Bills: o Purchasing and discounting of bills is the most important form in which a bank lends without any collateral security. Present day commerce is built upon credit. The seller draws a bill of exchange on the buyer of goods on credit. Such a bill may be either a clean bill or a documentary bill which is accompanied by documents of title to goods such as a railway receipt. O The bank purchases the bills payable on demand and credits the customer's account with the amount of bill less discount. At the maturity of the bills, bank presents the bill to its acceptor for payment. In case the bill discounted is dishonoured by non-payment, the bank recovers the full amount of the bill from the customer along with expenses in that connection. By Heena Malhotra