Dividend Decisions By Heena Malhotra

Irrelevance Theory (Dividend is irrelevant) M.M. Approach Theories of Dividend Walter Model Relevance Theory (Dividend is relevant) Gordon Model By Heena Malhotra

Assumptions of Gordon Model This model is based on the following assumptions: Firm is an all equity firm i.e. no debt IRR will remain constant, because change of IRR will change the growth rate and consequently the value will be affected. Hence this assumption is necessary. .Ke will remains constant, because change in discount rate will affect the present value. .Retention ratio (b), once decide upon, is constant ie. constant dividend payout ratio will be followed. .Growth rate (g- br) is also constant, since retention ratio and IRR will remain unchanged and growth, which is the function of these two variable will remain unaffected. Ke> g, this assumption is necessary and based on the principles of series of sum of geometric progression for 'n' number of years .All investment proposals of the firm are to be financed through retained earnings only By Heena Malhotra

Gordon Model (Dividend Discount Model) It is financial model that values shares at the discounted value of the future dividend payments. Under this model, the price a share will be traded is calculated by the NPV of all expected future dividend payment discounted by an appropriate risk- adjusted rate. The dividend discount model price is the intrinsic value of the stock i.e Intrinsic value Sum of PV of Future cash flows Intrinsic value = Sum of PV of Dividends + PV of Stock Sale Price Stock Intrinsic Value 2 By Heena Malhotra

Gordon's Basic Valuation Formula o y- E(1-b) E-Eb D1 ke- br D1 o V= By Heena Malhotra

The relationship between dividend and share price on the basis of Gordon's formula is shown as: Market price per share y=1 ,9) ke -g Where, VEMarket price per share (ex-dividend) do Current year dividend g -Constant annual growth rate of dividends K.-Cost of equity capital (expected rate of return) The formula given by Gordon shows that when the rate of return is greater than the discount rate, the price per share increases as the dividend ratio decreases and if the return is less than discount rate it is vice-versa. The price per share remains unchanged where the rate of return and discount rate are equal. By Heena Malhotra

Gordon's Revised Model The basic assumption in Gordon's Basic Valuation Model that cost of capital (k) remains constant for a firm is not true in practice. Gordon revised his basic model to consider risk and uncertainty In revised model, he suggested that even where r- k, dividend policy affects the value of shares on account of uncertainty of future, shareholders discount future dividends at a higher rate than they discount near dividends. By Heena Malhotra

That is there is a two fold assumption, viz (investors are risk averse, and (R) they put a a premium on a certain return and discount / penalise uncertain returns. Because the investors are rational and they want to avoid risk, they prefer near dividends than future dividends This argument is described as bird-in-the hand argument.ie. the value of a rupee of dividend income is more than the value of rupee of capital gain. Thus, if dividend policy is considered in the context of uncertainty the cost of capital cannot be assumed to be constant and so firm should set a high dividend payout ratio and offer a high dividend ield in order to minimise its cost of capital

There can be three possible situations: Dividend Discount Model Zero Growth Constant Growth Variable Growth By Heena Malhotra

Advantages of Gordon Model 1. The dividend discount model is a useful heuristic model that relates the present stock price to the present value of its future cash flows 2. This Model is easy to understand Limitations of Gordon Model 1. The dividend discount model, depends on projections about company growth rate and future capitalization rates of the remaining cash flows, which may be difficult to calculate accurately. 2. The true intrinsic value of a stock is unknowable, By Heena Malhotra

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Aminul Choudhury

2 years ago

Assam has enacted PRANAM Act to make it compulsory for govt employees to pay 10% of their salary to their Parents who are dependent on them....

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Jatin Verma

2 years ago

Thanks for sharing it here. Others could also pls.....

Aminul Choudhury

2 years ago

More details : http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/sp.asp?id=2017/sep2517/BigPage6.jpg

Doli saini

2 years ago

I think private sector employees k liye esa act hona chaiye

Nirmal Saini

2 years ago

Please can any one make a course on liability of children to the their parents. All the laws and Act made by center and State govt

Manisha Nishad

7 months ago

Hello Ma'am! Ye "discount karna" kya hota h?

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Anjali sharma

a year ago

ms'sn.gordon model mein discount rate ko Ke bolenge kya.ye mps ke formule ke neeche jo likha h paragraph mein.tell me please

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Heena

a year ago

Sorry , I am not able to get your query.. Please elaborate :)

Isha yadav

a year ago

mam yh formulas yaad krna imp. hai ???

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Heena

a year ago

Bilkul imp. h , bhut br formulas se question aaye hue h aur bhut br minor calculation wale questions bhi aaye hue h..

Isha yadav

a year ago

okay mam thankyou aap bhut h ache padhate ho .

Heena

a year ago

Thank you :)