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Polity and Governance
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Jatin Verma is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Jatin Verma
Have appeared in UPSC CSE thrice. Have been taking Unacademy Plus courses Academics- Polity, Economics & Current Affairs.

U
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me ek time IAS ke sapne dekh rha tha pr ab koi hope nhi rhi kyuki 1. mujhe lagta meri English kamjor hai 2. bank ki job me rahte hue tayari nhi kar pa rha hu
  1. 2/25/19 LOCAL GOVT. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved unacademy


  2. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved CONTENTS Role of Local govt. o Evolution of Local govt. o Panchayats o District Rural Development o National Capital Territory of Delhi o Scheduled Areas PESA, 1996 O o Tribal Areas o Forest Rights Act, 2006 o Gandhiji's Concentric Agenc o Municipalities o 2nd ARC Recommendations o District Collector o Co-operative Societies o Union Territories Circles Model unacademy 2/25/19


  3. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats o The State Legislature may endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government, o Such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchavats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social iustice the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice b) unacademy 2/25/19 26


  4. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243H- Taxes and Funds o The State Legislature may (a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits; (b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits; (c) provide for making such grants in aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State; and (d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such moneys therefrom, as may be specified in the law unacademy 2/25/19 27


  5. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 2431- State Finance Commissiorn o The Governor of a State shall constitute a Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Panchayats to make recommendations to the Governor 1) the principles which should govern the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, and the allocation between the Panchavats at all levels of their respective shares of such proceeds the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned to, or appropriated by, the Panchayat the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State 2) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats 3) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the interests of sound finance of the Panchayats. unacademy 2/25/19 28


  6. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 2431- State Finance Commissiorn o The State Legislature may by law provide for 1. Composition of the Commission Qualifications of members of the Commission 2. 3. Manner of selection of its members 4. Their procedure 5. Exercise of powers in the performance of their functions o The Governor shall place the SFC's report and an explanatory memorandum on the actions taken before the State Legislature. unacademy 2/25/19 29


  7. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243J D Audit of Accounts of Panchayats o The State Legislature shall provide for 1. Maintenance of accounts of Panchayats 2. Auditing of accounts unacademy 2/25/19 30


  8. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243L- Application to Union territories o The provisions of the Part IX shall apply to the Union territories. o The President may, by public notification, direct that the provisions shall apply to any Union territory or part thereof subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification. unacademy 2/25/19 32


  9. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243M- Part not to apply to certain areas o The provisions of Panchayats shall not apply to Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and other areas which include 1. hill areas of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists 2. Scheduled areas in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Odisha and Rajasthan 3. Tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram 4. Hill areas of Manipur for which a district council exists o However, Parliament may extend the provisions to scheduled areas subject to exceptions and modifications. unacademy 2/25/19


  10. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats o The state laws relating to Panchayats which were enacted before the 73rd Amendment Act and are inconsistent with it shall continue for a maximum period of one year. o Panchayats existing before the commencement of the Act shall continue unless sooner dissolved or a resolution passed to that effect by the State Legislature. unacademy 2/25/19 34


  11. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 2430- Interference by Courts o The Courts are barred from interfering in electoral matters such as the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies. o No election to any Panchayat can be called in question except by an election petition as provided under any law made by the Legislature of a State. unacademy 2/25/19 35


  12. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Compulsory provisions o Organisation of Gram sabha o Establishment of three tier panchayat system o Direct elections to all tiers o Indirect elections of chairperson at intermediate and district levels o Minimum age for elections- 21 vears o Reserva en at all tiers. o Duration of 5 vears and holding elections within 6 months in tions for SCs, STs and won case of supersession o State Election Commission to hold elections o State Finance Commission every five vears to review financial position of Panchayats. unacademy 2/25/19 36


  13. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Voluntary provisions o Representation to MPs and MLAs at all levels falling within their constituencies. o Reservation of backward classes o Devolving powers and authority to panchayats to plan for economic development and social justice o Making Panchayats autonomous institutions o Financial powers to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees. unacademy 2/25/19 37


  14. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2015 o The fundamental object of Panchayati Raj system is to ensure which among the following? 1. People's participation in development 2. Political accountability 3, Democratic decentralization 4. Financial mobilizatiorn Select the correct answer using the code given below A. 1, 2 and 3 only B. 2 and 4 only C. 1 and 3 only D. 1, 2, 3 and 4 unacademy 2/25/19 38


  15. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2011 o The constitution (seventy third amendment) act, 1992, which aims at promoting the panchayati raj institutions in the country, provides for which of the following? 1. Constitution of district planning committees. 2. State election commissions to conduct all panchayat elections. 3. Establishment of state finance commission. State the correct answer using the codes given below: A. 1 only B. 2 and 3 only C. 2 and 3 only D. 1,2,and 3 unacademy 2/25/19 39


  16. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved DRDA District Rural Development Agency unacademy 2/25/19 4


  17. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved DRDA o The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) has traditionally been the principal organ at the District level to oversee the implementation of different anti-poverty programmes. Since its inception, the administrative costs of the DRDAs were met by way of setting apart a share of the allocations for each programme o Each district will have its own District Rural Development Agency unacademy 2/25/19 41


  18. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved o to oversee and ensure that the benefits specifically earmarked for certain target groups (SC/ST, women and disabled) reach them o take necessary step to improve the awareness regarding rural development and poverty alleviation particularly among the rural poor. o promote transparency in the implementation of different o ensure financial discipline in respect of the funds received by them, o coordinate and oversee the conduct of the BPL Census and such o carry out / aid in carrying out action research/or evaluation studies antipoverty programmes by publishing details whether from Central or State Governments other surveys that are required from time to time that are initiated by the Central/State Governments. unacademy 2/25/19 43


  19. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Organisational Structure o Each DRDA should be headed by a Project Director who would be in overall charge of the activities of the DRDA and responsible for interaction with the District/State administration as well as with th Government of India, o In some States, such as Maharashtra, the CEO of the Zilla Parishad is the Chairman of the Zilla Parishad. o Each DRDA should have the following wings: a ) Self-employment Wing;b) Women's Wing; c ) Wage employment Wing; d) Engineering Wing e ) Accounts Wing; g) General Administration Wing f) Monitoring and Evaluation Win unacademy 2/25/19


  20. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2012 o How do District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) help in the reduction of rural poverty in India? 1. DRDAs act as Panchayati Raj Institutions in certain specified backward regions of the country 2. DRDAs undertake area specific scientific study of the cause of poverty and malnutrition and prepare detailed remedial measures. 3. DRDAs secure intersectoral and interdepartmental coordination and cooperation for effective implementation of anti poverty programmes. 4. DRDAs watch over and ensure effective utilisation of the funds intended for antipoverty programme. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1, 2 and 3 only B. 3 and 4 only c. 4 only D. 1, 2, 3 and 4 unacademy 2/25/19 45


  21. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2015 o Khap panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human right violation:s. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and judiciary to set the things right in this regard. unacademy 2/25/19 46


  22. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved MUNICIPLALITIES PART IX-A: ARTICLES 243-P- 243-ZG unacademy 2/25/19 4


  23. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 74th Amendment Act, 1992 o Added Part-IX-A and articles 243-P to 243-ZG to the Constitution. o Added Twelfth schedule to the Constitution. o Aims at strengthening urban local governments to enable them to function effectively. unacademy 2/25/19 48


  24. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Definitions o "Metropolitan area" means an area having a population of ten lakhs or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas, specified by the Governor by public notification to be a Metropolitan area o "Municipal area" means the territorial area of a Municipality as is notified by the Governor. o "Municipality" means an institution of self-government constituted under article 243O unacademy 2/25/19 49


  25. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243Q- Constitution of Municipalities o There shall be constituted in every State, (a) a Nagar Panchayat (by whatever name called) for a transitional area, that is to say, an area in transition from a rural area to an urban area (b) a Municipal Council for a smaller urban area; and (c) a Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area o A Municipality cannot be constituted in an area which has been declared by the governor as an industrial township. unacademy 2/25/19 50


  26. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243R- Composition of Municipalities o The State Legislature may provide for representation in Municipality of the following: (i) persons having special knowledge or experience in Municipal administration; (ii) the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly the Municipal area; iii) the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative Council of the State registered as electors within the Municipal area; (iv) the Chairpersons of the Committees except wards committees unacademy 2/25/19 53


  27. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243S O Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc o Wards Committees shall be constituted in Municipalities consisting of one or more wards and having more than 3 lakhs o The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision for (a) the composition and the territorial area of a Wards Committee; (b) the manner in which the seats in a Wards Committee shall be filled o A member of a Municipality representing a ward within the S. territorial area of the Wards Committee shall be a member of that Committee, unacademy 2/25/19 54


  28. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243S o Where a Wards Committee consists of_ (a) one ward, the member representing that ward in the Municipality; or (b) two or more wards, one of the members representing such wards in the Municipality elected by the members of the Wards Committee, shall be the Chairperson of that Committee. o The state legislature can constitute committees other than wards committees. unacademy 2/25/19


  29. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243T- Reservation of seats o Seats reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) and chairpersons of the Municipalities at all levels also shall be reserved for SCs and STs in proportion to their population o The state legislature can provide for reservation of office of chairperson in Municipa ity at any level for SCs, STs and women o One-third of the total number of seats to be reserved for o One-third of the seats reserved for SCs and STs also reserved o The state legislature can provide for reservation of seats or of women for women office of chairperson in Municipality at any level for backward classes. unacademy 2/25/19 56


  30. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243T- Reservation of seats unacademy 2/25/19 57


  31. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243U- Duration of Municipalities, etc. o Uniform five year term of office o Elections to constitute new bodies to be completed before the expiry of the term of five years. o In the event of dissolution, elections compulsorily within six months unacademy 2/25/19 58


  32. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243V- Disqualifications for membership o A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of a Municipality- if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the State legislature concerned > if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the State o No person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than 25 o The disqualification of a member shall be decided by such authority Legislature years of age, if he has attained the age of 21 years and in such manner as the state legislature may provide. unacademy 2/25/19 59


  33. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243W o Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc. o The State Legislature may endow the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government. o Such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Municipalities at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice b) unacademy 2/25/19 60


  34. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved ion Article 243Y- Finance Commiss o The Governor of a State shall constitute a Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Municipalities to make recommendations to the Governor 1) the principles which should govern the distribution between the State and the Municipalities of the net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, and the allocation between the Municipalities at all levels of their respective shares of such proceeds the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned to, or appropriated by, the Municipality the grants-in-aid to the Municipalities from the Consolidated Fund of the State unacademy 2/25/19 63


  35. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243Y- Finance Commission 2) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Municipalities. ) any oter mrd othe FinanceComny he Governor in the interests of sound finance of the Municipalities. o The Governor shall place the SFC's report and an explanatory memorandum on the actions taken before the State Legislature. unacademy 2/25/19 64


  36. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243Z- Audit of accounts of Municipalities o The State Legislature shall provide for 1. Maintenance of accounts of Municipalities 2. Auditing of accounts unacademy 2/25/19 65


  37. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZA- Elections to the Municipalities o State Election Commission referred to in 243K shall conduct elections to Municipalities. o The State Legislature shall make laws for all matters of elections to Municipalities. unacademy 2/25/19


  38. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZB- Application to Union territories o The provisions of the Part IX-A shall apply to the Union territories. o The President may, by public notification, direct that the provisions shall apply to any Union territory or part thereof subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification. unacademy 2/25/19 67


  39. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZC- Part not to apply to certain areas o The provisions of Municiplaities shall not apply to Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and other areas which include 1. hill areas of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists 2. Scheduled areas in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Odisha and Rajasthan 3. Tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram 4. Hill areas of Manipur for which a district council exists o However, Parliament may extend the provisions to scheduled areas subject to exceptions and modifications. unacademy 2/25/19 68


  40. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZD- Committee for district planning o A District Planning Committee shall be constituted in every State at the district level to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole, o The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect (a) the composition of the District Planning Committees; (b) the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled (c) the functions relating to district planning which may be assigned to such Committees; (d) the manner in which the Chairpersons of such Committees shall be chosen unacademy 2/25/19 69


  41. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZD- Committee for district planning o Not less than four-fifths of the total number of members of such Committee shall be elected by, and from amongst, [i] the elected members of the Panchayat at the district level [ii] the elected members of the Municipalities in the district o This representation should be in proportion to the ratio between the population of the rural areas and of the urban areas in the district. o The Chairperson of every District Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by such Committee, to the State Government. unacademy 2/25/19 70


  42. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZE- Committee for Metropolitan planning o A Metropolitan Planning Committee shall be constituted in every Metropolitan area to prepare a draft development plan for the Metropolitan area as a whole. o The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect (a) the composition of the Metropolitan Planning Committees; (b) the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled (c) the representation of Central govt. State govt. and other institutions necessary for its functioning, (d) the functions relating to planning and coordination for the Metropolitan area (e) the manner of choosing Chairpersons of such Committees unacademy 2/25/19 72


  43. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZE- Committee for Metropolitan planning o Not less than two-thirds of the members of such Committee shall be elected by, and from amongst, [i] the elected members of the Municipalities and [ii] Chairpersons of the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area o This representation should be in proportion to the ratio between the population of the Municipalities and of the Panchayats in that area. unacademy 2/25/19 73


  44. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZE- Committee for Metropolitan planning o Every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall, in preparing the draft development plan have regard to (i) the plans prepared by the Municipalities and the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area; (ii) matters of common interest between the Municipalities and the Panchayats, including co-ordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation; (iii) the overall objectives and priorities set by the Gol and the State Government (iv) the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in the Metropolitan area by agencies of the Gol and of the State Govt. and other available resources whether financial or otherwise; unacademy 2/25/19 74


  45. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZE- Committee for Metropolitan planning o Every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall consult suc.h institutions and organisations as the Governor may, by order, specify o The Chairperson of every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by suclh Committee, to the State Government. unacademy 2/25/19 75


  46. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities o The state laws relating to Municipalities which were enacted before the 74rd Amendment Act and are inconsistent with it shall continue for a maximum period of one year. o Municipalities existing before the commencement of the Act shall continue unless sooner dissolver or a resolution passed to that effect by the State Legislature unacademy 2/25/19 76


  47. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243ZG- Interference by Courts o The Courts are barred from interfering in electoral matters such as the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies. o No election to any Municipality can be called in question except by an election petition as provided under any law made by the Legislature of a State unacademy 2/25/19


  48. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2011 o Consider the following statements In India, a metropolitan planning committee: 1. Is constituted under the provisions of the constitution of India 2. Prepares the draft development plans for metropolitan area. 3. Has the sole responsibility for implementing government sponsored schemes in the metropolitan area. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 and 2 only B. 2 only c. 1 and 3 only D. 1,2 and 3 unacademy 2/25/19 78


  49. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2005 o Consider the following statements: 1. Part IX of the Constitution of India contains provisions for Panchayats and was inserted by the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 2. Part IX A of the Constitution of India contains provisions for municipalities and the Article 243 Q envisages two types of municipalities a Municipal Council and a Municipal Corporation for every State Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 unacademy 2/25/19 79


  50. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2nd ARC RECOMMENDATIONS SIXTH REPORT unacademy 2/25/19


  51. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 6th report of 2nd ARC on local governance o To strengthen local bodies' finances, a State Finance Commission o Local bodies should take total responsibility for the functions o For ensuring accountability and transparency in the functioning o Set up of a national commission of urbanisation to suggest steps be constituted in such a manner that it can take into account the recommendations of Central Finance Commission. entrusted to them under the Constitution and bodies such as electricity boards and water authorities made responsible to them of local bodies, a local body ombudsman be constituted to look into complaints of corruption and maladministration to deal with rapid urbanisation and direct election of Mayors by popular mandate. unacademy 2/25/19 83


  52. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved DISTRICT COLLECTOR unacademy 2/25/19


  53. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved District collector- an overburdened functionary o The District Collector also known as Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrate is the head of the district administration o His principal task is maintenance of law and order in the district. Others include o direction and fulfillment of tasks relating to the socio-economic development o inquires, at the behest of government into a number of thorny incidents and issues of public importance. o chief guardian of the people during natural disasters o Planning and implementation of literacy programmes o supervise the progress of district reforestation plans of the forest department, o chairman of the District Rural Development Agenc unacademy 2/25/19 85


  54. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2017 o "The local self government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance". Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. (150 words) 95 unacademy 2/25/19 86


  55. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES PART IX-B: ARTICLES 243-ZH- 243-ZT unacademy 2/25/19


  56. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Definitions o A co-operative society is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise. o Under Article 243-ZH "co-operative society" means a society registered or deemed to be registered under any law relating to co-operative societies for the time being in force in any state. "Multi state co-operative society" means a society with objects not confined to one state and registered or deemed to be registered under any law for the time being in force related to such co- operatives unacademy 2/25/19


  57. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved o Cooperative societies is a state subject under Entry 32 of the State List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. o For cooperative societies working in more than one state, The Multi State Cooperative Societies Act, 1984 was enacted by Parliament under Entry 44 of the Union List of the Seventh Schedule a Central Act (replacing the Multi Unit cooperative societies Act, 1942). This act of 1984 was replaced by The MSCS Act, 2002. o The 97th CAA, 2011 granted constitutional status to cooperative societies incorporating three changes in the constitution 1. Right to form co-operative societies was made a fundamental right under Article 19 Promotion of co-operative societies was made a DPSP under Article 43-B 2. 3. Added Part IX-B entitiled "Co-operative Societies" with Articles 243-ZH to 243-ZT unacademy 2/25/19 89


  58. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZI O In-corporation of Co-operative Socities o The State Legislature make provisions with respect to the incorporation, regulation and winding up of co-operative societies based in the principles of voluntary formation, democratic member-control, member-economic participation and autonomous functioning unacademy 2/25/19 90


  59. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZJ o The maximum number of directors of a cooperative society shall not o Reservation of one set for SC/ST and two seats for women on the o he term of a board & its office bearers has been fixed to 5 vears from Number and term of members in board and its office bearers exceed 21 board of every co-operative society. the date of election. 5. If less than a half of the term of board remains to be completed and if there is a vacancy, the board can nominate from the same class of members in respect of vacancy arisen. o Not more than two experts experienced in respective fields can be co- opted in addition of 21 members of board. But these co- opted members cannot vote or cannot become office bearer. 7. Over and above 21 directors, functional directors shall also be members of the board unacademy 2/25/19 91


  60. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZL Suppression and suspension of board and interim management o No board is to be superseded or suspended for a period exceeding six months and in case of cooperative banks other than multi state cooperative banks this period cannot exceed one year. o The board may be superseded or kept under suspension in case o (i) Of its persistent default o (ii) Of negligence in the performance of its duties 0 (iii) Of committing any act prejudicial to the interests of the co- operative society or its members board accordance with the provisions of the State Act o (iv) Of there being a stalemate in the constitution or functions of the o (v) Of the election body having failed to conduct elections in unacademy 2/25/19 93


  61. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZL o No board can be superseded unless the government has a shareholding / loan/ financial assistance in the cooperative society or has guaranteed any financial transaction of cooperative society o Cooperative banks will be governed by The BR ACT, 1949. o In case of supersession of a board, the administrator appointed to manage the affairs of such a co-operative society shall arrange for conduct of elections within the period of six months and hand-over the management to the elected board unacademy 2/25/19 94


  62. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZM Audit and accounts of co-operative societies o The state legislature may make provisions for 1. the maintenance of accounts by the co-operative societies and 2. the auditing of such accounts at least once in each financial year. 3. the minimum qualifications and experience of auditors and auditing firms that shall be eligible for auditing the accounts of the co- operative societies. o Every co-operative society shall be audited by an auditor or auditing firm, appointed by the general body of the co-operative society unacademy 2/25/19 95


  63. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZM o Provided, such an auditor or auditing firm shall be appointed from a panel approved by the State Government or a body authorised by the State Government on its behalf. within six months of the close of the financial year. society shall be laid before the state legislature. o The accounts of every co-operative society shall be audited o The audit report of the accounts of an apex co-operative unacademy 2/25/19 96


  64. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZN-Right of a member to get information o The general body meeting should be called within six months of close of financial Article 243-ZO-Right of a member to get information year. o The state legislature mav > provide for access to every member of a co-operative society to the books, information and accounts of the co-operative society Make provisions to ensure the participation of members in the management of the co-operative society provide for co-operative education and training for its members. unacademy 2/25/19 97


  65. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZP- Returns o Every cooperative society shall file specified returns to the authority within six months of close of financial year relating to (a) Annual report of its activities (b) Its audited statement of accounts (c) Plan for surplus disposal as approved by the general body of the cooperative societv (d) List of amendments to the by-laws of the co-operative society (e) Declaration regarding date of holding of its general body meeting and conduct of elections when due (f) Any other information required by the Registrar in pursuance of any of the provisions of the State Act unacademy 2/25/19 98


  66. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 243-ZQ- Offences and penalties o The state legislature may make provisions for the offences relating to the o (a) A co-operative society willfully makes a false return or furnishes false o (b) Any person willfully disobeys any summon, requisition or order issued o (c) Any employer who, without sufficient cause, fails to pay to a co- o (d) Any officer who willfully fails to handover custody of books, accounts, o (e) Any person who adopts corrupt practices before, during or after the co-operative societies and penalties for such offences. Such a law shall include the commission or omission of the following acts as offences: information under the State Act operative society the amount deducted from its employee within a period of fourteen davs documents, records, cash, security and other property belonging to a cooperative society to an authorised person election of members of the board or office bearers unacademy 2/25/19


  67. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved O Article 243-ZR- Application to multi-state co-operative societies o The provisions of this part shall apply to the multi-state co-operative societies subject to the modification that any reference to the "State Legislature", "State Act" or "State Government" shall be construed as a reference to "Parliament", "Central Act" or "Central Government" respectively O Article 243-ZS- Application to Union Territories O The provisions of this part shall apply to the Union territories. o The President may direct that the provisions of this part shall not apply to any Union territory or part thereof as he may specify in the notification. O Article 243-ZT- Continuance of exiting laws o The state laws relating to co-operative societies which were enacted before the 97th Amendment Act and are inconsistent with it shall continue for a maximum period of one year unacademy 2/25/19 100


  68. 2/25/19 UNION TERRITORIES PART VIII ART. 239-241 101 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved unacademy


  69. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Union Territories o Union territories o Article 1 of the Constitution states that Union territories shall comprise (a) the territories of the States; (b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and (c) such other territories as may be acquired. unacademy 2/25/19 103


  70. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239 o Unless otherwise specified by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to bie appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. o the President may appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. unacademy 2/25/19 104


  71. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239A O Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for o Inserted by Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962 certain Union territories o Parliament may by law create for a UT of Puducherry (a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a Legislature for the Union territory, or (b) a Council of Ministers, or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the law o Such law shall not be deemed to be an amendment of the Constitution for the purposes of article 368 unless it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution. unacademy 2/25/19 105


  72. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239B o The administrator of Puducherry, after obtaining instructions from the President, can promulgate ordinances except when the o Such an ordinance will have the same effect as an act of the o However, the ordinance has to be passed with six weeks of o The ordinance can be withdrawn by the governor at any time after o An ordinance cannot be promulgated when the Assembly is legislative assembly is in session Assembly reassembling of the LA unless which it ceases to have effect. obtaining instructions from the President. dissolved or suspended unacademy 2/25/19 106


  73. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 240 o The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of (a) the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; (b) Lakshadweep; (c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli; (d) Daman and Diu; o In case of Puducherry, the President can make regulations only when the Legislative Assembly is suspended or dissolved o Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament and shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory unacademy 2/25/19 107


  74. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 241 o Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union o Parliament has the power to extend or exclude the jurisdiction Territory. of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof unacademy 108 2/25/19


  75. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF DELHI ARTICLES 239AA & 239AB unacademy 2/25/19


  76. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239AA Special provisions with respect to Delhi. o Inserted by Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 o Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. o There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory unacademy 2/25/19 110


  77. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239AA o There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly o The CoM headed by the Chief Minister aids and advises the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion. o In case of difference of opinion between the governor and the CoM, the governor can refer it to the President and act accordingly pending which the governor can take immediate action if required to do so. unacademy 2/25/19 112


  78. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article 239AA o The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. o The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly. unacademy 2/25/19 113


  79. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved o Article 239AB o The President may make provisions for administering NCTD if on the report of the governor, he is satisfied that (a) a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of any law made in pursuance of that article; or (b) it is necessary or expedient to do so for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory The ordinance making powers under Article 239B are also applicable to the NCTD unacademy 2/25/19 114


  80. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Legislature Executiv Legislative Lt. Governor Delhi Assembly Legislative Lt. Governor Madras Assembly UT High court Delhi CM & CoM Puducherry CM & CoM Chandigarh Administrator Punjab & Haryana Lakshadweep Andaman & Nicobar Administrator Kerala Lt. Governor Kolkata islands Daman & Diu Dadra & Nagar Haveli AdministratorMumbai Administrator Mumbai unacademy 2/25/19 115


  81. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2016 o Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any, that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? unacademy 2/25/19 116


  82. 2/25/19 SCHEDULED & TRIBAL AREAS PART X ARTICLE 244 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved unacademy


  83. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Schedules o 5th Schedule - administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes in any state except the four states of Assam, Tripura, Mizoram and Meghalaya o 6th Schedule-administration of tribal areas in Assam, Tripura, Mizoram and Meghalaya unacademy 118 2/25/19


  84. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved SCHEDULED AREAS unacademy 2/25/19


  85. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Scheduled Areas o The criteria followed for declaring an area as Scheduled Area are (a) preponderance of tribal population; (b) compactness and reasonable size of the area; (c) under-developed nature of the area; and (d) marked disparity in economic standard of the people. o These criteria are not spelt out in the Constitution of India but have become well established. o They embody principles followed in declaring Excluded and Partially-Excluded Areas under the Government of India Act 1935, Schedule B of recommendations of the Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas Sub Committee of Constituent Assembly and the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission 1961 unacademy 2/25/19 120


  86. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved President and Scheduled Areas o The President can declare areas to be scheduled areas and direct that whole or any part of a scheduled areas have ceased to be scheduled areas. o The President, in consultation with the governor, can increase, decrease or alter the boundary lines of scheduled areas. o The governor is required to submit annually or whenever so required by the President a report on the administration of Scheduled areas unacademy 2/25/19


  87. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Tribes Advisory Council o If the President so directs, there will be established a TAC in a State having Scheduled tribes but not Scheduled Areas therein, consisting of not more than twenty members of whom, three-fourths shall be the representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State. o If the number of representatives of the STs in the Legislative Assembly of the State is less than the number of seats in the TAC to be filled by such representatives, the remaining seats shall be filled by other members of those Tribes. unacademy 2/25/19 122


  88. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Tribes Advisory Council o The TAC shall advise on such matters pertaining to the welfare and the advancement of the STs in the State as may be referred to them by the Governor. o The Governor may make rules prescribing or regulating (a) the number of members of the Council, the mode of their appointment and the appointment of the Chairman of the Council and of the officers and servants thereof (b) the conduct of its meetings and its procedure in general:; (c) all other incidental matters. unacademy 2/25/19 123


  89. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Laws applicable to Scheduled areas o The Governor may, by public notification, direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall or shall not apply to a SA or any part thereof in the State, subject to such exceptions and modifications, as specified o The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in the State which is for the time being a SA o In making such regulations, the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of Legislature of the State or any existing law after obtaining assent of the President. unacademy 2/25/19 124


  90. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Laws applicable to Scheduled areas o Such regulations may (a) prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled tribes in such area (b) regulate the allotment of land to members of the STs in such area, (c) regulate the carrying on of business as money-lender by persons who lend money to members of the STs in such area. o No regulations shall be made unless the Governor, in case a TAC exists, consults such TAC. unacademy 2/25/19 125


  91. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved O PESA exclusively empowers Gram Sabha to (i) safeguard and preserve the (a) traditions and customs of the people, and their cultural identity, (b) community resources, and (c) customary mode of dispute resolution (ii) carry out executive functions to (a) approve plans, programmes and projects for social and economic development; (b) identify persons as beneficiaries under the poverty alleviation and other programmes; (c) issue a certificate of utilisation of funds by the Panchayat for the plans; programmes and projects unacademy 2/25/19 130


  92. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Powers endowed to Gram Sabha and Panchayat at appropriate level to 1, regulate sale/consumption of intoxicants 2. ownership of minor forest produce 3, prevent land alienation and restore alienated land 4. manage village markets 5. control over money lending to STs 6. control over institutions and functionaries in social sector, local plans including Tribal sub plans and resources unacademy 2/25/19 133


  93. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved o The State Legislations that may endow Panchayats with powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government shall contain safeguards to ensure that Panchayats at the higher level do not assume the powers and authority of any Panchayat at the lower level or of the Gram Sabha o The State Legislature shall endeavour to follow the pattern of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution while designing the administrative arrangements in the Panchavats at district levels in the Scheduled Areas. unacademy 2/25/19 134


  94. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Continuation of existing laws o Any provision of any law relating to Panchayats in force in the Scheduled Areas which is inconsistent with the provisions of Part IX with such exceptions and modifications shall continue to be in force until amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority or until the expiration of one year from the date on which this Act receives the assent of the President. o Panchayats existing before the commencement of the Act shall continue unless sooner dissolved by the State Legislature unacademy 2/25/19 135


  95. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2013 o The Government enacted the Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act in 1996. Which one of the following is not identified as its objective? A. To provide self governance B. To recognize traditional rights C. To create autonomous regions in tribal areas To free tribal people from exploitation unacademy 136 2/25/19


  96. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved TRIBAL AREAS unacademy 2/25/19


  97. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Tribal areas Assam 1. The North Cachar Hills District. 2. The Karbi Anglong District. 3, The Bodoland Territorial Area District. Meghalaya 1. Khasi Hills District. 2. Jaintia Hills District. 3. The Garo Hills District. Mizoram 1. The Chakma District. 2. The Mara District, 3, The Lai District. Tripura Tribal Areas District unacademy 2/25/19 139


  98. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils o Each autonomous district has a District Council consisting of 30 members of which, [i] 26 are elected on the basis of adult franchise [ii] 4 are nominated by the governor o Duration of elected members- 5 vears o Duration of nominated members- pleasure of the governor o Each autonomous region has a Regional Council unacademy 2/25/19


  99. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Legislative functions o The Legislative function of the District Council ranges from making laws for allotments and use of land other than reserved forests for agricultural purpose, for grazing and also residential or non- residential purpose. o It also looks after the management of unreserved forests, It also regulates the use of canals for the purpose of agriculture, shifting o It carries the task of public health and sanitation, regulate:s o It also regulates money lending and business by non-tribals within o Governor acts as the head of the Autonomous District Council as he cultivation, inheritance, marriage and divorce. the area of the council, enjoys the power to alter any law passed by the council which is in contravention to the Sixth Schedule, unacademy 2/25/19 143


  100. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Executive functions o The Executive functions performed by the District Council includes the power to manage markets, roads, waterways, ferries etc. o It also prescribes the medium of instruction and manner of education in primary schools within its jurisdiction o It has no legislative or regulatory power over the latter subjects. unacademy 2/25/19 144


  101. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Judicial functions o The council can constitute Village and District Council Courts in its area to deal with cases of customary laws in which both the parties are tribal o These courts cannot adjudicate cases in which punishment ranging to death sentence, life imprisonment or five year imprisonment is involved o These courts act as a court of appeal for all suits and cases tried under Village council courts and The District Council Courts. o NOTE: No other court than the High court and Supreme court have jurisdiction over suits and cases decided by the council courts. unacademy 2/25/19 145


  102. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Tribal areas o A commission may be appointed by the governor to report on any matter pertaining to the administration of autonomous districts or regions. o The governor is empowered to dissolve a district or regional council on the recommendation of such commission unacademy 2/25/19 148


  103. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2015 o The provisions in Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule in the Constitution of India are made in order to A. protect the interests of Scheduled Tribes B. determine the boundaries between States c. determine the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats D. protect the interests of all the border States unacademy 2/25/19 149


  104. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved FOREST RIGHTS ACT unacademy 2/25/19


  105. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Forest Rights Act, 2006 o The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is a result of the protracted struggle by the marginal and tribal communities of our country to assert their rights over the forestland over which they were traditionally dependent. o This Act is crucial to the rights of millions of tribals and other forest dwellers in different parts of our country as it provides for the restitution of deprived forest rights across India, including both individual rights to cultivated land in forestland and community rights over common property resources o The notification of Rules for the implementation of the Forest Rights Act, 2006 on 1st Jan 2008, has finally paved the way to undo the 'historic injustice' done to the tribals and other forest dwellers. unacademy 2/25/19 151


  106. C Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Significance of the Act o For the first time Forest Rights Act recognises and secures o Community Rights or rights over common property resources of the communities in addition to their individual rights o Rights in and over disputed land Rights of settlement and conversion of all forest villages, old habitation, un-surveyed villages and other villages in forests into revenue villages o Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which the communities have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use o Right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity o Rights of displaced communities o Rights over developmental activities unacademy 2/25/19 152


  107. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 2013 o Under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, who shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forest rights or both'? A. B. C. State Forest Department District Collector/Deputy Commissioner Tahsildar /Block Development Officer / Mandai Revenue Officer D. Gram Sabha unacademy 2/25/19 156


  108. Page-6: Data base soon on Bonda migration The Bonda Development Agency (BDA) has started an inquiry and survey in the remote Bonda-inhabited villages in Malkangiri district of Odisha following reports that these primitive tribals are migrating to other States in search of employment and that some of their women are being sexually exploited. o o Dubious contractors o Both the girls had allegedly fallen prey to dubious labour contractors in adjoining Andhra Pradesh. They along with several other Bonda men and women had migrated to Andhra Pradesh in search of work. It is alleged that labour contractors take these Bondas outside the State as cheap labour. As allegations are rife about mass migration of Bonda tribals from Odisha in search of livelihood, the administration has taken the issue seriously. o unacade


  109. o Bondas are considered to be one of most primitive tribes in the world o As per an official survey in 2015, around 8,000 Bonda tribals live in 32 villages of four panchayats under Khairaput block. Their villages are located in remote and isolated hilly region north-west of the Machhkund river. Their habitat in Khairaput block is called the Bonda valley Salient Recommendations of Virginius Xaxa Committee: (1) Laws and policies enacted by the Parliament and State Legislatures should not be automatically applied in the Fifth Schedule areas (as was the case under colonial rule or as is presently the case in the Sixth Schedule areas). Its applicability should be made contingent on the discretion of the Governor who would determine its applicability or non-applicability or applicability with modifications/amendments on the advice of Tribes Advisory Council (2) Actions taken by the Governor for safeguarding the interests of tribal communities should be clearly mentioned in the annual Governor's Reports submitted to the President (3) There is a dire need to establish agro-based training institutions and related labour intensive processing industry so a sto prevent mass-migration. Terms and quantum of micro-credit should be made reasonable for individuals, SHGs, cooperative institutions and Gram Sabhas in Scheduled Areas for the tribes to pursue these occupations. Contd....


  110. Q. Consider the following pairs: State Tribe 1. Limboo (Limbu): Sikkim 2. Karbi: 3. Dongaria: 4. Bonda Which of the above pairs a Himachal Pradesh Odisha Tamil Nadu re correctly matched? The Bonda people currently live in the hills of Odisha's Malkangiri district in India. Two different Bonda tribes: the Upper Bondas > the most isolated from mainstream Indian society, and the Lower Bonda with a population of 17,000 The unfree labour or Goti system in India is known as Gufam by the Bonda people Remo is language of the Bonda tribe. unacade


  111. O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved GANDHIJI'S CONCENTRIC CIRCLES MODEL unacademy 2/25/19


  112. want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE and he However, countries, mostly fromthe developed world, want what they call the '21st century s bnat th trade issues' - such as: e-commerce, investment facilitation, y hav pmatters relating to small firms and gender equality-to be discussed for rule-making to ree enhance the relevance of the WTO 'No new issues': India, and several countries mainly from the developing world, are against slay introduction of such 'new issues' into the Doha Round, saying it is important to first resolve outstanding issues such as the ones relating to food security and protection of poor farmers before taking up new topics Owing to persistent differences, barring a broad agreement on permanent solution to the issue of public stockholding for food security purposes, it is likely to be decided that issues such as (pu, Special Safeguard Mechanism' (SSM, which will allow developing nations to temporarily increase tariffs to counter import surges or price declines, and in turn protect poor farmers), 'limiting harmful fisheries subsidies', 'possible negotiations on e-commerce', as well as 'services trade facilitation' (including easing rules regarding movement of professionals and skilled workers across borders for temporary work or projects) will be addressed through eparate 'work programme(s)'post Buenos Aires ope an or us hink h cause l erent rk and t stay that


  113. want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE and he s bnat th 'No onerous conditions' On the 'permanent solution' to public stockholding for food security purposes, India's demand has the support of 120-odd nations India had made it clear that it would not accept a 'permanent solution' with onerous . y hav conditions that in turn make it tough for the Indian government or other developing reve e countries as well to meet the food security needs of their people. layer On agricultural issues including the 'permanent solution' and SSM, India is working with G-33 (a group of 47 nations) The G-33 which held a meeting on December 9 to ensure that solidarity is maintained on or us hink h cause h erent these matters. . To get wide support on India's interests, commerce minister also met with the South Centre, an intergovernmental organisation of developing nations. Besides, he held a meeting with European Union Trade Commissioner and conveyed India's position on various issues including food security and e-commerce. a pu * rk and t sta ch


  114. want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE and he at th Page-1: No WTO deal without food security. India (Dec 12 DNA) ' India has said it cannot envisage any negotiated outcome, at the ongoing meeting of the World Trade Organisation's apex decision-making body, which does not include successful resolution of the food security right issue. WTO Ministerial Conference: India's concerns: Public Distirbution System & Peace Clause: India has already made it clear that it will not accept a 'permanent solution' with onerous conditions that in turn make it very difficult for the (Indian) government or other developing countries to meet the food security needs of their people. Reaffirmation of Doha Development Agenda:India calls upon the WTO membership to re endorse the centrality of development (the agenda to improve the trading prospects of developing nations) in WTO negotiations without creating new sub-categories of countries. Rule based Multilateral Trading System: India urged the entire WTO Membership to unequivocally reaffirm the importance of a rules-based multilateral trading system. re 1. pe an nk h 2. DLU 3. lock e t stay 4. Inordinate delay in appointment of new members to the (WTO's) Appellate Body. 5. 'No'to 'new issues': India opposes the endeavour of certain countries to include 'new issues' such as e-commerce, investment facilitation and matters relating to small firms-in the ongoing Doha Round of negotiations (which started in 2001 with a 'development agenda), without ESTeSolving outstanding.issues cluding those relating to food S curitv


  115. want te the starti anted to show the boss whatcE and he probablv hser U to s bnat th 2018 Ministerial Conference: Issues: PDS & Peace Clause het y hav India's proposal for Trade Facilitation in Services pho reve he g layer Re-affirmation of Doha Development Agenda No to New issues" such or us hink h cause h erent as e-Commerce a pu rk and t sta Rule based Multilateral Trading System Asymmetrv in farm subsidv norms: ch esthat par een t


  116. want to be starting ganses, beiag LT anted to show the boss whatcE and he s bnat th Tactical Moves of Developed World: We are increasingly seeing that the discourse on development at the WTO is sought to be deflected by specious arguments based on aggregate GDP figures. While in India we are proud of our GDP and growth rates of recent years, we cannot ignore that India is home to y hav phe more than 600 million poor people reve Therefore, India legitimately demands for special and differential treatment for developing countries . This is in the context of attempts by certain rich countries to wreck the broad unity h slay among developing nations on a host of issues, by suggesting that countries such as India and China are currently emerging economies and reasonably strong in trade unlike others in the developing world - and, therefore, such powerful nations that are still in the 'developing' category do not deserve to gain from the favourable treatment meant only for developing nations in WTO Agreements. or us hink h erent a pu rk and t sta ch that


  117. want to be starting ganses, beiag LT anted to show the boss whatcE and he wat th From Municipal Committees to Ministerial Conferences: Global-Local Debate Previous vears' Questions Question. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect ph countries in profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their he decisions? Critically analyse India's stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. rew [20141 pe ar Question. The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries." Discuss in the Indian perspective. [2016] nk h Pu locke t stay par eent


  118. want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE and he s bnat th Business Page 13: 'WTO meet failure: India not blamed' (DEC 18 DNA) For the first time in the more than two-decade history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), India was not blamed for the failure of a meeting of the global organisation's apex decision-making body as witnessed in the Argentine capital. y hav ph e The WTO's Ministerial Conference had, on earlier occasions, ended without a Ministerial Declaration in Seattle (1999), Cancun (2003) and Geneva (in 2009 and partly in 2011) owing to a lack ofconsensus among member-nations from the rich and the poor world on issues relating to market-opening commitments in farm and industrial goods India was blamed for these as well as for the failure of some of WTO's 'mini-ministerials' (meetings by a group of some important members of the WTO from the developing and developed world), most notably in June 2007 in Potsdam and July 2008 in Geneva on agriculture issues. Mr. Prabhu, who led India's negotiating team, said, "I was told by quite a few people who have attended almost all ministerials that for the first time, India is not blamed. This is very important. India has always been the whipping boy, and people need whipping boys," he said. slay or us hink h cause l erent a pur . rk and t sta


  119. Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved THANK YQU