Natural Vegetation5 MATURAU VEGETATIOn By Manish Kumar
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests Climatic Conditions Annual rainfall 100 to 200 cm Mean annual temperature of about 27 C . The average annual relative humidity of 60 to 75 per cent. .Spring (between winter and summer) and summer are dry.
Characteristics The trees drop their leaves during the spring and early summer when sufficient moisture is not available. The general appearance is bare in extreme summers (April-May) Tropical moist deciduous forests present irregular top storey [25 to 60 m] Heavily buttressed trees and fairly complete undergrowth. These forests occupy a much larger area than the evergreen forests but large tracts under these forests have been cleared for cultivation
Distribution Belt running along the Western Ghats surrounding the belt of evergreen forests. A strip along the Shiwalik range including terai and bhabar from 77 E to 88 Manipur and Mizoram. . Hills of eastern Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh Chota Nagpur Plateau. Most of Odisha. . Parts of West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Wood Timber These provide valuable timer like Teak. The main species found in these forests are teak, sal, laurel, rosewood, amla, jamun, bamboo, etc. It is comparatively easy to exploit these forests due to their high degree of gregariousness (more pure stands).
Littoral and Swamp Forests They can survive and grow both in fresh as well as brackish water (The mixture of seawater and fresh water in estuaries is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt). Occur in and around the deltas, estuaries and creeks prone to tidal influences (delta or tidal forests). Littoral (relating to or on the shore of the sea or a lake) forests occur at several places along the coast. Swamp forests are confined to the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery
Dense mangroves occur all alona the coastline in sheltered estuaries, tidal creeks,backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats. It provides useful fuel wood The most pronounced and the densest is the Sunderban in the Ganga delta where the predominant species is Sundri (Heriteera). It provides hard and durable timber which is used for construction, building purposes and making boats The important species found in these forests are Sundri, agar, rhizophora, screw pines, canes and palms, etc.
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