Dr Praveen Kumar Agrawal is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
COURSE BIOMOLECULES Lesson Micro and macro biomolecules Dr. Praveen Kumar Agrawal
Micro and Macro molecules Smaller molecules or micromolecules . These include - minerals, water, monosaccharides, disaccharides, fatty acids, glycerol, amino acids and nucleotides. They have low molecular weights (Mol. Wt.), simple molecular conformation and high solubility. . Larger molecules or macromolecules These include nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), polysaccharides (starch, glycogen and cellulose), fats (esters of fatty acids) and various proteins. Macromolecules are usually formed by the polymerisation of the smaller molecules. They have high molecular weights, and lesser solubility.
Smaller or micromolecules Larger or macromolecules Smaller in size These have low molecular weights These have simple molecular conformations Have high solubility Usually monomers (not formed by repetitive units) Larger in size These have high molecular weights These have have complex conformations Have low solubility Usually polymers (have repetitive units)
Important Macro-molecules Synthesis equation Polymers Starch Glycosidic bond Glucose Glycogen Glycosidic bond Glucose Cellulose Glycosidic bond Glucose Proteins Peptide bond Amino acidsn(NH2 R COOH) protein chain +nH20 DNA Phosphodiester bond Deoxy Bond Monomers n(C6H1206) CH1206)n+ nH20 n(CsH1206)-(C1206)n+ nH20 n(CsH1206) -(C1206)n+ nH20 n(Phosphate+Deoxyribose+ nitrogenous base) DNA + nH20 ribonucleotides RNA Phosphodiester bond Ribonucleotides n (Phosphate + ribose + nitrogenous base) RNA nH20
Inorganic and organic molecules . The molecules in cellular pool are both organic and inorganic in nature Inorganic substances Main inorganic compound of the cell is the water, which is about 75 to 85% of all the compounds. Other inorganic components include CO2, H2CO3 and minerals. Organic substances These are the compounds of carbon (except CO2,CO and H2CO3). Organic compounds of the cell include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins etc. Biologically produced organic compounds usually have optical activity, i.e., they are able to rotate the plane of a polarised light. Abiologically produced organic compounds generally do not have this property. . Amount of organic and inorganic compounds differs greatly in animals and plants. Animal cells generally have abundance of proteins and nitrogen derivatives while plant cell have higher amounts of carbohydrates (a cell wall constituent)
Plant cell Animal cell 1. Water 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Carbohydrates 5. Others 67% 16% 13% 2% 2% 1. Water 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Carbohydrates 5. Others 75% 3% 2% 18% 2%