Dr Praveen Kumar Agrawal is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
COURSE BIOMOLECULES Lesson Major, micro and trace elements Dr. Praveen Kumar Agrawal
Biomolecules The structure of the cell that is visible with microscope is the result of the arrangement of various chemical compounds, which are arranged in very precise manner. The biology of the cell can not be separated from molecules because, as the cells are the building blocks of tissues and organs, in the same way, molecules are the building blocks of the cel All structural and functional properties of a cell depend upon its specific chemical make up. The protoplasm of the cell contains about 5000 kinds of chemical compounds or biomolecules.
Three elements Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen . are the most dominant elements. They make upto 93% of the cellular components (carbon 18%, hydrogen 10% and oxygen 65%), Nitrogen is the next chiefly present element, about 2% of the cellular chemicals. Nitrogen 2% . Therefore, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and the Carbon 18% nitrogen together constitute about 95% of the cellular material. 3 to 4% of the protoplasm is formed by calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and sulphur and rest is formed by other minerals. Oxygen 65% Hydrogen 1096 Others 5%
Amount in cytoplasm (%) 18-20 Categories Elements Symbol Atomic Functions No. Main component of all organic compounds, CO Main component of all organic compounds, Water maintains phH Main component of all organic compounds, oxidizing agent Main constituent of nucleic acids,proteins, nucleotides, vitamins Part of phospholipids, ATP Helps in blood coagulation, muscle contrac- tion, bone, teeth formation Carbon 9-10 Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen 0 60-65 Major elements 7 2-2.5 15 1.4-1.5 Phosphorus Calcium Ca 20 2-2.2
Chlorine Sulphur Potassium 0.1-0.14 0.1-0.16 0.11 Cl 17 16 19 Chloride shift, important anion Part of many proteins Main cation, stomatal movements, active transport, impulse transmission Main cation, active transport, blood pressure regulation, cell permeability Main part of chlorophyll, co-factor, enzyme - phosphatases Co- factor of enzymes Co- factor of enzymes Part of haemoglobin, cytochromes and peroxidases Co-factor of enzymes. Vitamin B-12 Co-factor of oxidative enzymes Co-factor of enzymes peptidases Co-factor of enzymes Minor or trace elements Sodium Na 0.1 Magnesium Mg 12 0.08-0.15 Boron Manganese Iron 5 25 26 0.02 0.009-0.01 0.010-0.050 Mn Fe Ultra trace elements Copper 27 29 42 30 Cobalt Co Cu Mo Zn 0.001-0.005 0.001-0.004 0.0008-0.001 0.0007-0.001 Molybdenum Zinc