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COURSE BIOMOLECULES Lesson Functions of amino acids Dr. Praveen Kumar Agrawal
Functions of amino acids Amino acids carn gve nioe ion milioni or prieing blocks) of proteins. 20 different types of amino acids can give rise to millions of proteins. Amino acids can be converted into carbohydrates when required (gluconeogenesis). Amino acid derivatives, amides are used to store nitrogen. Tyrosine is required for the synthesis of many hormones such as thyroxin (T3), tetra- iodo-thyronin (T4), epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, dopamine etc. Tryptophan is required for the formation of auxins (indole-3-acetic acid), a plant hormone. . Tryptophan is also necessary for the formation of vitamin nicotinamide. Tyrosine is necessary for the formation of skin pigment melanin. . Glycine is requires for the synthesis of haemoglobin. . Glycine is the simplest amino acids. It is used as a neurotransmitter. . CoA and pantothenic acid (vitamin) are formed by beta Alanine (which is a derivative of aspartic acid). . Amino acids are also used in several metabolic pathways and shuttles for the transfer of amino groups.
Histamine, a substance required for proper functioning of muscle fibres and gastric secretions, is formed by decarboxylation of histidine. Histamin, released from mast cells, can cause certain allergies. In excess, histamine can cause anaphylactic shock, characterised by a sudden fall in blood pressure. Ornithine and citrulline help in the formation of urea in liver. .Smaller peptide molecules formed by amino acids help in the formation of peptidoglycans (important components of bacterial cell wall These smaller peptides, in the form of encephalins, are secreted by neurons, which help in the perception of pleasure and pain. .
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