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COURSE BIOMOLECULES Lesson Concept of Lipids Dr. Praveen Kumar Agrawal
LIPIDS Lipids are complex organic compounds, which are insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar solvents, such as ethers, benzene and chloroform etc. Lipids can be dispersed uniformly in water in the form of minute droplets. Such a complex is called emulsion. . Chemically Lipids are the actual or potential esters of higher fatty acids. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, natural rubber, carotene (carrot), lycopene (tomato), vitamins (A, D, E and K) and steroids etc. Lipids are highly energetic. Their calorific value is about 9.4 kcal. On hydrolysis, lipids produce fatty acids and alcohol (mainly glycerol). Fatty acids undergo a process, called beta oxidation, inside mitochondria to provide acetyl-coenzyme molecules. These molecules, finally enter the Kreb cycle, to generate a large amount of energy.
Esters These organic compounds are formed when These have -Coo-group. In fats, the acids are the fatty acids and alcohol is alcoholic group is condensed with a carboxylic group. RCO OH HO -R RCOOR' H20 usually glycerol or long chain alcohols. CH OH - -R HO-OC -R HO-OC - R Fatty Acids 2 CH-O OC R CH2-O OC -R 3 H2O CH2 OH Glycerol A triglyceride (simple lipid)
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