Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement .1915 saw return of Gandhiji to India . Had experimented with techniques of satyagraha in S.Africa . By this time, Indians were already politically aware- INC and its regional branches, Swadeshi Satyagraha and participation of middle classes, etc. Swadeshi movement had brought to limelightnew leaders- Lal, Bal and Pal . . Gandhiji took Gokhale, a moderate as his mentor Spent travelling a year to know India and made 1st public appearance at opening of BHU in 1916 . It is here Gandhiji spoke- "There is no salvation for India unless you stri yourself of this jewellery and hold it in rust for your countrymer
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement "Our salvation can come only through the farmer. Neither the lawyers, nor the doctors, nor the rich landlords are going to secure it" So, he spoke that Indian nationalism was an elite phenomenon In 1916- He was approached by Rajkumar Shukla, a pesant, at Lucknow session of INC complaining about Champaran . . . 1918-Involvement in Ahmedabad mill strike and Kheda Satyagrahca 1919-Rowlatt Satyagraha as protest against Rowlatt Act- press censorship + Detention w/o trial- Countrywide strike organised . .Protest severe in Punjab as many men had served in WW1 expecting reward for service. Gandhiji wasn't allowed to enter Punjab 1919-Jallianwala Bagh Massacre .
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement .So Rowlatt Satyagraha made Gandhiji a NATIONALleader Then came another call for 'NON-COOPERATION' along with a promise that if it is carried out sincerely, India will win swaraj within an year He took opportunity to link NCM and Khilafat issue Gandhiji's biographer Louis Fischer has written, "Non-cooperation became the name of an epoch in the life of India and of Gandhiji" . .Itwas -ve enough to be peaceful but +ve enough to be effective
Gandhiji - A people's leader Transformed elite nationalism to people's movement Gandhiji dressed, lived and spoke in ordinary language Act of spinning to break boundaries in traditional caste system, b/w mental labour and manual labour Use of symbols- dhoti, charkha, salt Congress broadened base- Praja mandals to promote nationalism + Provincial Congress Committees of Congress on linguistic basis Worked for CONSTRUCTIVE PROGRAMMES- Hindu-Muslim unity, untouchables, women emancipation, etc. He was as much a social reformer as a politician Spoke not just for political swaraj but also economic . .
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement 1928 saw anti-Simon Commission protests. Gandhiji didn't participate in this movement but gave his blessings 1929- INC Lahore session-Nehru as President signifying passing baton of leadership to youth + Purna Swaraj as goal After Independence Day (26.1.1930), Gandhiji announced his idea to lead salt satyagraha . . Why salt? . An indispensable item in every house, still taxed . In order to prevent use of salt that has not paid tax, govt destroys the salt it cant sell profitably Destruction of something nature produces Deprives people of a valuable easy village industry Destruction itself means more national expenditure .
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement 12 March 1930-Salt March from Sabarmati to Dandi Relevance of salt satyagraha . Brought Gandhiji to world attention- US & European press 1st nationalist activity in which women participated (socialist leader Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay) . Made British realize that their raj wont last forever . British convened Round Table Conferences in London . 1931- Gandhi Irwin Pact by which CDM will be convened off and salt manufacture be allowed RTC's couldn't bring something conclusive 1935- Gol Act 1935 promised some form ofrepresentative go .
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement Gandhiji pledged support of INC to WW2 if British promise to grant independence On British refusal, a series of INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHAS took place 1940-Muslim League resolution for autonomy 1942- Cripps Mission 1942- After failure of Cripps Mission, QIM was launched . . . How was QIM different from other movements? It was genuinely a MASS movement as all leaders were immediately arrested Establishment of parallel govts took place .
Mahatma Gandhi & national movement . 1944- Gandhiji held meetings with Jinnah but it didn't work out 1946- Cabinet Mission failed to get both parties agree on a federal system . After it, DIRECT ACTION DAY launched by League-16.8.1946 1947-Mountbatten Plan-British India would be free but it would be divided After independence, at initiative of Gandhiji and Nehru, Congress passed a resolution on 'rights of minorities