Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Colonialism and the countryside 21
Colonialism and the countryside Hoe and the plough . Paharias people living in RAJMAHAL HILLS . Scratched ground using hoe, cultivate and then leave fallow . Chiefs maintained unity + Paharias regularly raided plains where . Raids were also a means of negotiating political relations with Practised shifting cultivation+ Depended on forest produce Forests-ldentity+ Survival settled agri was being done outsiders. Zamindars of plains had to give tribute to hill chiefs to use the passes controlled by them
Colonialism and the countryside Coming of British . Encouraged forest clearing and extension of settled agri . They also associated forests with wildness . As settled agri expanded, the raids of hill folk grew frequent 1770's- British-Policy of EXTERMINATION of hill folk .1780's- Policy of pacification- Paharias given an annual allowance + Had to ensure proper conduct. Those Paharia chiefs who accepted this often lost authority within community. They were perceived as STIPENDARY CHIEFS Slowly, Paharias withdrew deep into mountains .
Colonialism and the countryside Other thon British they had threat ol SANTHALS If Paharis were hoe, Santhals were plough. The battle b/w the hoe . Santhals began to come to Bengal in 1780's Santhals practised settled agriculture and the plough was a long one Zamindars hired them to expand cultivation+ British asked them to settled in JANGAL MAHALS Persuaded to settle in foothills of Rajmahal A large area of land demarcated and declared as LAND OF SANTHALS- damin-i-koh Santhal myths refer to long history of travel + Search for a place to SETTLE and with damin-i-koh, their journey seemed to have come to an end . .
Colonialism and the countryside . Paharias now began to be confined to dry and rocky upper hill:s . Shifting cultivation depends on movement-restricted . Their most fertile soils now became part of damin So why would Santhals rebel? . Soon found that state was levying heavy tax on land. moneylenders(dikus) -high interest rates and taking over land, zamindars exerting control over damin areas Santhal revolt takes place in 1855-56 and leads to creation of SANTHAL PARGANA (Birbhum, Bhagalpur) . . British-pacify- S.Pargana+ Special laws within it
Colonialism and the countryside Deccan riots- A case of Bombay Deccan- 1875 . In this area, revenue settlement was TEMPORARY British officials influenced by DAVID RICARDO, economist Ricardian idea-A landowner should have claim only to average rent'. When land yields more than average rent, landowner has a surplus which must be taxed by state. . If this tax isnt levied, cultivators will turn into RENTIERS Also, their surplus income will not be productively invested in land improvement British officials that Bengal confirmed these ideas-Zamindars had turned to rentiers and leased out land So revenue system in Bombay was RYOTWARI SYSTEM . . .
Colonialism and the countryside So what was issue? Revenue demanded was high + Peasants deserted villages .Even when monsoons failed, Collectors kept on extracting . 1830's- Agri prices fell and didn'trecover for over a decade+ e Ryots moneylenders payments else crops were seized+ Fine on whole village Famine went for borrowing from 1840's-Revenue demands moderated and soon agri prices also recovered and even agri acreage expanded But for expansion, need of ploughs and cattle - So took loar .
Colonialism and the countryside . British worried about American cotton supplies being cut-off . India was seen an alternative destination for Lancashire India-good soil, climate and labour 1861- American civil Export merchants of Bombay gave advances to urban sahukars who in turn extended credit to rural moneylenders But these boom years brought prosperity to some rich peasants and meant a heavier debt for large majority 1865-Civil war ended and Indian cotton exports declined war . While credit declined, revenue demand increased Moneylenders violated customary norms- Interest could not be more than principol
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