Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Colonial cities Architecture and planning in new cities- Madras . Early trading posts on West coast(Surat) but search for textiles brought them to East coast 1639- Trading post at Madraspatnam/Chenapattanam 1761-French defeated and Madras grew more secure Fort St. George-nucleus of White Town Company didn'tpermit marriages with Indians New black town laid down having distinctcaste-specific neighborhoods (washermanpet-cloth dyers) Incorporation of many villages made Madras a wide expanse As British consolidated their power, they started to move out of Fort and Garden Houses began to be developed . .
Calcutta Had grown from 3 villages- Sutanati, Kolkata and Govindapur Initial focus-security by strengthening forts Area around Ft. William cleared Once British became confident of their permanent presence in Calcutta, they started moving out and building residential spaces Lord Wellesley built a massive palace, Government House Later Lottery Committee took up public works Cleared river bank of encroachents Densely built-up areas became targets of demolition, thatched huts were banned and tiled roofs made mandatory Existing racial divide of black-white areas reinforced by idea o 'unhealthy-healthy' . . . .
Colonial cities Bombay . Monumental buildings to represent imperial power .Bombay -important port- 1 imp item-opium that EIC exported to China This trade integrated Bombay's economy directly to Malwa, Rajasthan and Sind A new capitalist class from diverse background- Marwari, Parsi, Konkani, etc. 1869-Suez Canal opening further made Bombay strong Gradually, Indians too got used to European architecture and British in turn adapted some Indian styles . . . . For e.g. name bungalow derived from bangla, thatched Bengali
Colonial cities Colonial bungalow on extensive grounds to ensure privacy Traditional pitched roof, surrounding veranda to keep bungalow cool Separate servant quarters Public buildings-architecture- neo classical and neo-Gothic Neo-classical Derived from a style in ancient Rome which was revived during Renaissance (imperial Rome) Mediterranean origins thought to be suitable for tropical weather Geometric structures, lofty pillars, covered arcades at ground level to shield pedestrians . . For e.g. Town Hall of Bombay, Elphinstone Circle, etc.
Colonial cities Neo-Gothic . Gothic style-roots in buildings, especially churches, of Northern Europe . Neo-Gothic revived in England . High-pitched roofs, pointed arches and detailed decoration For e.g. Secretariat, Bombay University ,HC and Victoria Terminus . Indian merchants adopted these thinking them as progressive 20th century- Hybrid style combining Indian and European styles- INDO-SARACENIC (inspired by medieval buildings) to show that they were LEGITIMATE RULERS of India Saracen-to designate Muslim For e.g. Gateway of India built in Gujarati style, Taj Mahal Hotel by Jamsetji Tata Lack of space led to chawls, multi-storeyed single-room apart .
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