Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Colonial cities Towns and cities in pre-colonial times Towns dominated over rural population, lived on the surplus and taxes from agriculture Often fortified by walls symbolizing separation from countryside But this separation was fluid Peasants used to pass through towns while on pilgrimages Flocked to towns during famines On otherhand, when towns were attacked, shelter sought in countryside Traders used to sell fheirgoods in villages . .
Colonial cities Mughal times- Agra, Delhi and Lahore - important centres . Mansabdars and jagirdars usually maintained houses in these cities as status symbol . Presence of Emperor gave rise to artisans, cooks, etc. .Focus of town was oriented towards palace and principal mosque In towns of S.India such as Madurai, focus was the temple Here, ruler was the principal patron of religious institutions Everyone was expected to know their social position and in N.lndia, maintaining this orderwas the work of imperial officer k/a kotwal . . .
Colonial cities Changes in 18h century .Gradual erosion of Mughal power Old towns saw a decline while new towns developed Mughal capitals- Delhi, Agra lost their political authority Artisans and traders migrated to new centers Continuous warfare b/w new kingdoms meant that mercenaries found a ready employment Coming of Europeans led to new trading centres- Masulipatnam Pondicherry, etc. By end of 18th century, land-based empires in Asia were replaced by sea-based European empires . .
Colonial cities e From mid-l8 cenfury, commercial cenfres such as Dhaka, Masulipatnam, which had grown in 17th century, declined when trade shifted to other places Slowly Presidencies emerged as new economic capitals Presidencies -collection depots for exports of Indian manufacturers After Industrial Revolution, cities became entry point for British- manufactured goods After 1800, urbanisation in India was sluggish . I towns Every railway station became a collection depot For e.g. Mirzapur on Ganges, which specialised in collecting cotton goods from Deccan, declined after a rail link was made to Bombay Railway towns such as Bareilly and Jamalpur developed
Colonial cities e Coming of banks, insurance agencies for shipping, administrative offices (Writers' Building), racially exclusive clubs, theatres, etc Political patronage shifted from kings to ElC Rich Indian middlemen built large traditional courtyard houses in . Black Town + Also built temples to increase status Changes after 1857 revolt New urban spaces k/a CIVIL LINES set up for more security Cantonments developed as safe enclaves As epidemics spread, British grew concerned about hygiene not just in white areas but also in black areas . . Underground piper water supply and sewage systems put in plasa along with sanitary vigilance
Colonial cities What were new towns like? . Fortified settlements made in Presidencies . Indian merchants lived outside these settlements So, there was a separation - White town and Black town With coming of Railways, hinterland became more closely linked to main port cities Modern industrial development- Cotton mills in Bombay and Jute mills in Calcutta But economies were not completely based on factory production, rather majority of workers-tertiary sector Mainly we had 2 industrial cities- Kanpur and Jamshedpur Economic activity near river/sea- ghats and docks . . . . .
Colonial CifIes First hill stations firstly to meet needs of British army For e.g. Simla during Gurkha war, Mt.Abu after Anglo-Maratha war of 1818, etc. Strategic locations to guard frontiers, launch campaigns,etc. Also developed as sanitariums i.e. places where soldiers could rest British associated hot weather with epidemics Practice of shifting capitals began after Viceroy John Lawrence officially moved his c uncil to Simla ogive a home-like feel, coffages, villas, Anglican church, educational institutions, culture of teas, picnics became prevalent Slowly railways made even upper & middle class Indians such as maharajas, lawyers reach hill stations Plantations led to influx of labour and so they no longer remained exclusive racial enclaves
Colonial cities Social life in new cities Dramatic contrast b/w wealthy and poor Trams and buses -place of work could be separate from place of . residence Creation of public places(parks) and cinemahalls meant increased social interaction An urban educated middle class came upt Debate culture New opportunities for women + Middle-class women-journals, autobiographies, etc. At times, even reformers who supported women education saw women as mothers and wives Religious festivals, tamashas, etc. often mocked British masters . . .
Calcutta Had grown from 3 villages- Sutanati, Kolkata and Govindapur Initial focus-security by strengthening forts Area around Ft. William cleared Once British became confident of their permanent presence in Calcutta, they started moving out and building residential spaces Lord Wellesley built a massive palace, Government House Later Lottery Committee took up public works Cleared river bank of encroachents Densely built-up areas became targets of demolition, thatched huts were banned and tiled roofs made mandatory Existing racial divide of black-white areas reinforced by idea o 'unhealthy-healthy' . . . .
Colonial cities Colonial bungalow on extensive grounds to ensure privacy Traditional pitched roof, surrounding veranda to keep bungalow cool Separate servant quarters Public buildings-architecture- neo classical and neo-Gothic Neo-classical Derived from a style in ancient Rome which was revived during Renaissance (imperial Rome) Mediterranean origins thought to be suitable for tropical weather Geometric structures, lofty pillars, covered arcades at ground level to shield pedestrians . . For e.g. Town Hall of Bombay, Elphinstone Circle, etc.
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