Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Colonialism and the countryside Bengal and the zamindars Raja- term used to designate powerful zamindars Rajas and taluqdars of Bengal were k/a zamindars Was not a landowner, rather a revenue collector Over 75% of zamindars changed hands after Perm Settlement Auctions of zamindaris took place + Many of the purchasers turned out to be agents of zamindars . . So though mahals (estates) were publicly sold, they remained under control of zamindars
Colonialism and the countryside Why did the zamindars default on payment? Initial demands very high as Company thought that it would be difficult to raise it later. They had thought that burden on zamindars will decline as agri production rises This high demand imposed in 1790's - agri prices were depressed Sunset clause- Revenue had to be payed punctually Zamindars lost their power to organise local justice & local police At times, ryots deliberately delayed payment. Rich ryots and village headmen-jotedars & mandals- mainly Zamindars could prosecute defaulters but the judicial process was long drawn .
Colonialism and the countryside What was the aim of British? A fixed and regular flow of income Also entrepreneurs could feel sure of earning a profit from investment, since state will not demand more They thought that this will lead to emergence of a class of YEOMAN FARMERS who will invest in agriculture . . .
Rise of jotedars Group of rich peasants who consolidated their position in villages Acquired vast land tracts+ Control on local trade-moneylending, etc Large part of their land was cultivated through sharecroppers (bargadars/adhiyars) who brought their own plough and handed over half the produce to jotedars .Power more effective than zamindars as unlike zamindars (urban), they lived in villages . Resisted efforts by zamindar to increase jama of village . Were often purchasers of auctioned zamindaris . Also k/a haoladars, gantidars and mandals
Colonialism and the countryside COMPANY ZAMINDAR (controls numerous villages) JOTEDAR a rich ryot, al a trader and moneylender) UNDER-RYOT UNDER-RYOT
Colonialism and the countryside Did zamindars do something about their declining power? . Entered into fictitious sales-women name, benamipurchases His agents manipulated the auctions- brought it, didn'tpay revenue to British, British again had to auction and so on. Ultimately, estate was sold at low price back to zamindars .People from outside couldn't take zamindari as zamindars resisted them by using their lathyals. At times, even ryots supported local zamindar-father figure and proja concept Later rules of revenue payment were made flexible and zamindar's power strengthened It was only during Great Depression that they finally collapsed and jotedars consolidated their power . .
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Colonialism and the countryside Hoe and the plough . Paharias people living in RAJMAHAL HILLS . Scratched ground using hoe, cultivate and then leave fallow . Chiefs maintained unity + Paharias regularly raided plains where . Raids were also a means of negotiating political relations with Practised shifting cultivation+ Depended on forest produce Forests-ldentity+ Survival settled agri was being done outsiders. Zamindars of plains had to give tribute to hill chiefs to use the passes controlled by them
Colonialism and the countryside Other thon British they had threat ol SANTHALS If Paharis were hoe, Santhals were plough. The battle b/w the hoe . Santhals began to come to Bengal in 1780's Santhals practised settled agriculture and the plough was a long one Zamindars hired them to expand cultivation+ British asked them to settled in JANGAL MAHALS Persuaded to settle in foothills of Rajmahal A large area of land demarcated and declared as LAND OF SANTHALS- damin-i-koh Santhal myths refer to long history of travel + Search for a place to SETTLE and with damin-i-koh, their journey seemed to have come to an end . .
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