Lesson 5: Working Of Institutionn
Major Policy Decision
Government of India appointed a Commission in 1979, headed by BP. Mandal, called Second Backward Commission. Commission gave a report in 1980. One of the suggestions was to reserve 27 per cent of government jobs for Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBC). This issue was discussed this for many years.
Janata Dal won elections in 1989. V.P. Singh, the Prime Minister, decided to implement reservations - The President announced it in his address to the Parliament On 6 August 1990, the Cabinet decided to implement and the Prime Minister announced it in both Houses of Parliament, The senior officers drafted an order, signed by an officer and it became he Memorandum issued on 13 August 1990. There was a heated debate on the issue and it was finally taken to the Supreme Court. The case was known as "Indira S Union of India case." VS 19 In 1992 Supreme Court declared the Mandal order as valid but asked for som
Need for Political Institutions
government has to perform various duties, formulate policies and implement them. Some have to formulate schemes, some have to take decisions, some have to implement the decisions. the need for institutions to do all the above. The Constitutionof a sountrylays down basic rules. onp ach institution. The prim in ns. The Supreme court solves disputes between citizen and government. Government) and the Judiciary. im S. The institutions are the Legislative (Parliament), the Executive (the
Disadvantages of Institutions: Presence of various institutions leads to delay in decision making which can be quite frustrating for many Advantages of Institutions: Presence of various institutions ensures that a broad consensus is arrived at before any major decision is taken. Institutions also prevent a bad decision being rushed into.
The institutions are the Legislative (Parliament), the Executive (the Government) and the Judiciary
In all democracies , an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on the behalf of the people .At national level it is parliament and at state level it is legislative assembly It is needed as final authority to make laws in the country -To exercise control over the workings of the government. To control the expenditure of the government,and control public money As the highest forum of discussion and debate it decides public issues and national policies.
Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the country .The task of making a law is called legislation and hence the parliament or the assemblies are called legislatures. The legislature can make a new law, change existing laws or abolish existing laws.
-Two Houses of Parliament. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The former has elected representatives and is the House of People. The Rajya Sabha elected by the elected members of each State Assembly is called the Council of States.
Lok Sabha is more important in money matters, control over e executive and council of ministers., has more members. It is also called as lower chamber. .Rajya Sabha is more important in matters concerning the states. It is called as upper chamber Lok Sabha is elected for a period of five years. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House, with one third members retiring every two years. The term of each member is for six years. The President of India is part of the parliament although she is not a member of either house.
The task of the Council of Ministers is to execute the programmes and policies of the governmemt hence it is called the executive
-Since the political executive is answerable to the people hence it enjoys more power than the permanent executive However, people in the permanent executive are technically more knowledgeable and capable compared to those in the political executive.
Prime minister is the most important political institution in the country Prime Minister has three kind of ministers to help him (i) Cabinet Ministers. It is the inner ring of the council of ministers (ii) Ministers of State with independent charges. Usually in charge of smaller ministries, (ii) Deputy Ministers
The Prime Minister's position is supreme. He chooses his Cabinet and his decision is final, except in a coalition government where he has to listen to other party members. When the Prime Minister quits, the entire ministry quits.
The President can only delay a bill. If the Parliament passes it again, he has to sign it. President has the power to appoint the leaders when there isa coalition on his own discretion. In countries like USA, France have powerful President ship.
of the most powerful judiciaries. India has one The Judiciary is independent of both the Executive and the Legislature. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. The other judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts are pointed in the same way but on the advice of the Chief Justice. Once appointed, the Judges can be removed only by impeachment.
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