Lesson 5: Working Of Institutionn
In all democracies , an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on the behalf of the people .At national level it is parliament and at state level it is legislative assembly It is needed as final authority to make laws in the country -To exercise control over the workings of the government. To control the expenditure of the government,and control public money As the highest forum of discussion and debate it decides public issues and national policies.
Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the country .The task of making a law is called legislation and hence the parliament or the assemblies are called legislatures. The legislature can make a new law, change existing laws or abolish existing laws.
-Two Houses of Parliament. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The former has elected representatives and is the House of People. The Rajya Sabha elected by the elected members of each State Assembly is called the Council of States.
Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses. A bill can become a law only after passage from both the houses. If there is a difference between the two Houses, then a joint session is held to take the decision. Since the Lok Sabha has more members than the Rajya Sabha, so the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail during a joint session.
Lok Sabha is more important in money matters, control over e executive and council of ministers., has more members. It is also called as lower chamber. .Rajya Sabha is more important in matters concerning the states. It is called as upper chamber Lok Sabha is elected for a period of five years. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House, with one third members retiring every two years. The term of each member is for six years. The President of India is part of the parliament although she is not a member of either house.
The Prime Minister and the Council of ilinisters make the polltical executive.
The task of the Council of Ministers is to execute the programmes and policies of the governmemt hence it is called the executive
The second category is called the permanent executive consisting of civil servants -They help the political executive in carrying out the day to day work. They are experts but do not take the final decision.
Prime minister is the most important political institution in the country Prime Minister has three kind of ministers to help him (i) Cabinet Ministers. It is the inner ring of the council of ministers (ii) Ministers of State with independent charges. Usually in charge of smaller ministries, (ii) Deputy Ministers
All the Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures elect him. Since he is elected indirectly, he does not have the same powers as the Prime Minister. The President exercises all his legislative, executive, financial, judicial, military powers only on the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers
The President can only delay a bill. If the Parliament passes it again, he has to sign it. President has the power to appoint the leaders when there isa coalition on his own discretion. In countries like USA, France have powerful President ship.
of the most powerful judiciaries. India has one The Judiciary is independent of both the Executive and the Legislature. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. The other judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts are pointed in the same way but on the advice of the Chief Justice. Once appointed, the Judges can be removed only by impeachment.
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