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SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA ITALY'S EXPANSION BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
Italy's E xpansion Italy took possession of parts of Eritrea in 1870 and 1882. - Defeated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War (1895-1896) Acquired Italian Somaliland in 1889 90 and the whole of Eritrea (1899). In 1911, it engaged in a war with the Ottoman Empire, in which it acquired Tripolitania and Cyrenaica (modern Libya). - In 1919 Enrico Corradini who fully supported the war, and later merged his group in the early fascist party (PNF) - developed the concept of Proletarian Nationalism, supposed to legitimize ltaly's imperialism by a mixture of socialism with nationalism.
First Italo-Ethiopian War The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896. Italy attacked Ethiopia, but faced a more united front than excepted. - France and Russia supported Italy - Italian defeat came about after the Battle of Adwa, where Ethiopian army delivered the Italians a heavy loss and forced their retreat back into Eritrea. This was not the first African victory over Western colonizers, but it was the first time such a military put a definitive stop to a colonizing nation's efforts. - "In an age of relentless European expansion, Ethiopia alone had successfully defended its independence"
Second ltalo-Ethiopian War or Second Italo-Abyssinian (1935-36) Resulted in Ethiopia's subjection to Italian rule. - Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for World War Il, the war demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations when League decisions were not supported by the great powers. The Second Italo-Abyssinian War would actually be one of the last colonial wars, occupying Ethiopia which had remained the last independent African territory, apart from Liberia. Ethiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had unsuccessfully tried to conquer in the 1890s, was in 1934 one of the few independent states in a European-dominated Africa.
- A border incident between Ethiopia and ltalian Somaliland that December gave Benito Mussolini an excuse to intervene. Rejecting all arbitration offers, the Italians invaded Ethiopia on October 3, 1935. After the defeat, the Ethiopia's leader, Emperor Haile Selassie, went into exile. In Rome, Mussolini proclaimed Italy's king Victor Emmanuel IIl emperor of Ethiopia and appointed Badoglio to rule as viceroy In response to Ethiopian appeals, the League of Nations condemned the Italian invasion in 1935 and voted to impose economic sanctions on the aggressor. The sanctions remained ineffective because of general lack of support. Although Mussolini's aggression was viewed with disfavour by the British, who had a stake in East Africa, the other major powers had no real interest in opposing him The war, by giving substance to Italian imperialist claims, contributed to international tensions between the fascist states and the Western democracies.
It also served as a rallying point, especially after World War lI, for developing African nationalist movements.
ur academy Port) Tangier Algiers Canary s Madeira is Canary telands Mediterranean Sea Algeria Igypt ALGERIA LIBYA RIO DE EGYPT HAR Mali umu a Burkina Chad FRENCH WEST AFRICA Khartoum, ERITREAH L. Chad ANGLO EGYPTIAN SUDAN Fashoda Benin Nigeria Addis Aeba NIGERIA African South Republic Sudan Ethiopia Toso ETHIOPIA ASTEARA INDIAN OCEAN ASTAManzibar (8r) ATLANTIC OCEAN Kenya Democratic BELGIAN CONGO Gabon Rebublic of the shash Congo Africa After the Scramble, 1914 Tapgabyika Tanzanla British ANGOLA French Italian Belgian Malawi RHODESIA Zambia AR ERMAN SOUTHWESt Spanish Independent African States REE STATBASUTOLAND UNION O UTH AFRICA 800 km 3 of 20 800 mi Africa
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