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Indian Economy during Independence
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This is the first chapter in the course. The lesson focuses on the state of Indian Economy in 1947 and the factors which led to the underdevelopment of sectors like agriculture, industrial, foreign trade. It is very essential to understand th economy before the independence to know and appreciate the level of development now.

Apurva Jha
B.Sc (EMS), MA(Applied Economics), Public speaker, nail art designer. Reading books, listening music, singing and watching movies.

U
Unacademy user
thank you so much mam
Hi Apurva.. I'm also an educator on unacademy. I watched your lessons those are really very good. Your voice is very clear in the video. Can I know what technique you use to get so clear voice. This will really help me to create some good lesson.
Apurva Jha
2 years ago
I just used a headphone to record the lessons. And recorded the lessons at night. Nothing different.
Nambi Rajan
a year ago
nice explanation
Hi Mam,your style of presentation and with keywords makes it very interesting while listening and also for easy reading that is very good mam.All this lectures are really helpful.Thankyou mam for your great efforts and Thanks to unacademy. :-) Reasons for establishing TISCO industry in jamshedpur: Jamshedpur(Jamshedpur is situated in the southern end of the state of Jharkhand) is home to the first private iron and steel company of India. The areas surrounding Jamshedpur are rich in minerals,including iron ore,coal, manganese bauxite and lime & the city is bordered by the rivers Swarnarekha and Kharkai on the north and west parts of the city,which made to establish TISCO in jamshedpur. Cotton textile mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat: Cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Availability of raw materials, moist climate,blacksoil, market, transport, labour, and good climatic conditions contributed to establish the mills near to it.
railway and commercialisation of indian agriculture HOW???
Apurva Jha
a year ago
See even though commercialisation of agriculture that is production of cash crops used to generate more profit, this profit was not shared with Indian farmers. It was supplied to British industries as a means of raw materials. Once railway was started, it became easier for Britishers to supply raw materials. Hence the commercialisation was increased.
Apurva Jha
a year ago
Hope it clarifies.
Thanks alot
mam what is the meaning of demographic transition?
Apurva Jha
2 years ago
Change in demography such as fertility, mortality and growth rates over a period of time
Kashyap Sharma
2 years ago
what was the reason for the decay of Handicrafts industries under colonial rule ?
Rodney Dsouza
2 years ago
@Kashyap Sharma : Reasons are : 1. As merely raw materials stays in India , all was transported to British industries under colonial rule. 2. the finished product from the British industries are very cheap in price when compared to our handicraft products
Arun Yadav
2 years ago
thanks mam for good effort
Arun Yadav
2 years ago
thanks mam for good effort
mam i did not get the reason behind commercialization of indian agriculture due to introduction of railways as negative ?
Apurva Jha
2 years ago
Hi Suman. Sorry for the late reply. Kind of missed your comment. See even though commercialisation that is production of cash crops used to generate more profit, this profit was not given to Indian farmers. It was used as the raw materials for British Industries. Once the railways were started, it became easier for the britishers to transport these raw materials. Hence they started promoting production of cash crops rather than normal crops.
Apurva Jha
2 years ago
Another problem with commercialisation was that, It was the main reason for the droughts during that period. Therefore commercialisation did more harm than good. And the development of railways promoted it. Hope it clarifies your doubt
Suman Doshi
2 years ago
This definitely clarifies my doubt... thank you so much mam for all ur efforts and kudos to team of unacademy for starting the education revolution in India...☺
  1. ABOUT ME NAME-APURVA JHA GRADUATED IN ECONOMICS, MATHS AND STATISTICS MASTERS IN APPLIED ECONOMICS FROM CHRIST UNIVERSITY, BANGALORE HOBBIES- WATCHING MOVIES, READING BOOKS, COOKING RATE, REVIEW AND RECOMMEND


  2. CHAPTER 1 INDIAN ECONOMY ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE


  3. OBJECTIVES . State of Indian Economy in 1947 . Factors Leading to Underdevelopment and Stagnation of the Indian Economy


  4. LOW LEVEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE COLONIAL RULE . Before British Rule Agriculture Manufacturing Activities + handicraft industries (cotton ,silk, metal and precious stone) . During British Rule Structure of the Indian Economy supplier of raw material t consumer of the finished products . National and Per Capita Income Dadabhai Naoroji, william Digby, Findlay Shirras, V. K.R.V Rao and R.C Desai


  5. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Experienced stagnation and deterioration . Various system of land settlement Zamindari System (Bengal Presidency) Profits Zamindars . Collect rent regardless of the economic conditions of the cultivators Ryotwari System . Ownership Peasants . British government collected taxes from peasants Mahalwari System . Lands were divided into mahals e Village committee collected taxes


  6. ACRICULTURAL SECTOR . Commercialisation of agriculture Didn't help in improving the economic conditions of farmers Used by British industries Caused Famines * . Lacked investment in terracing, flood control, drainage and desalinisation of soil e Low level of technology


  7. INDUSTRIAL SECTOR handicraft industries Primary motive of this de-industrialisation Exporter of raw materials Importer of those products Second half of the 19th century, modern industries began to take root Cotton Textile MillsMaharashtra, Gujarat Jute Mills TISCO Bengal Jamshedpur Hardly any capital goods industry to promote industrialisation Limited area of operation of public sector Railways, power generation, communications, ports


  8. FOREIGN TRADE Exporter > Raw silkl cotton, wool, ugar, indigo, jute etc. e Exporter> Raw silk, cotton, wool, sugar, indigo, jute etc. Importer>: Finished consumer goods Capital goods e Trade was restricted to Britain *China, Ceylon(Sri Lanka) and Persia (Iran) * Suez Canal Export Surplus Essential Commodities (food grains, clothes, kerosene) were scarcely available *Payments for expenses incurred by offices set up by the government in Britain Expenses on war and import of invisible items


  9. DEMOGRAPHIC CONDITION 1st stage of demographic transition . 2nd stage of demographic transition--+ after 1921 e Social development indicators were not encouraging . Low literacy level, life expectancy (44 years) before 1921 . High mortality and infant mortality rate (218/1000) High mortality and infant mortality rate (218/1000)


  10. OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE e Agricultural Sector 70%-75% Manufacturing sector . Services sector 10% 15%-20% Regional Variations Madras Presidency, Bombay, Bengal- Orissa, Rajasthan, Punjab , workforce in agricultural sector workforce in agricultural sector