Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 4 - 2017: 8-9
uestion 8(a): Discipline generally implies following the order and subordination. However, it may be counter-productive for the organization. Discuss Answer: Discipline means absolute obedience to commands of a superior authority It manifests in the form of a chain of command or hierarchy. Many administrative thinkers such as Max Weber, Henri Fayol have emphasised on the importance of discipline and principle of subordination in an organisation. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. It is the thread with which different parts of the organisation are sewn, helps in integration within an organisational structure. It acts as an instrument of communication and coordination, collecting ideas, dispersing information. It brings clarity in definition of various positions and responsibilities of each post in the organisation Enables delegation and decentralisation, prevents congestion at the top, protects the top level officials from mundane iob details
However, in some cases strict adherence to discipline may be counterproductive In contingency situations such as natural disaster, fire accidents, bomb blasts etc, waiting for orders from superior may cause delays. In such cases innovative and quick decision making is required. Rigid adherence to hierarchy leads to suspicion and not mutual trust as the superior doesn't trust the subordinate enough to make his own decisions. Authority and privileges are unequally distributed in a hierarchical pattern, interpersonal relationships is conditioned by this inequality. Discourages lower level initiative and innovation as opinion of the superior always prevails over subordinate. Blindly following orders is suitable in a centralised system like Germany under rule of Hitler, rather than a democratically decentralised one. 1. 3. 4. 5. Opinions of subordinates must also be taken into consideration as they are aware of local level conditions. This can be achieved by installing suggestion boxes, incentive structure, giving greater opportunities to participate in decision-making etc.
Question 8(b): Without commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations, neither the law, nor democratic government, nor even the market economy will function properly. What do you understand by this statement? Explain with illustration in the contemporary times. Answer: Gandhiji had said, "As human beings our greatness lies not in being able to remake the world- that is the myth of atomic age- but in being able to remake ourselves. 1. Laws- There are many laws and agencies to deal with corruption in India. Yet India has been unable to curb this menace because corruption is an important manifestation of failure of ethics. Itis unfortunate that corruption has become a matter of habit. Conscience and moral values are the first line of defense, laws are only remedial. Unless people answer to their own conscience and shun corruption, it will continue to deepen in india.
Democratic values: such as liberty, freedom of speech and expression, equality, justice, prohibition on child labour, has been mentioned in our constitution. Several democratic institutions such as Public service commissions, CAG, Election Commission have also been created to uphold these ideals. But it is yet to be internalised by the citizens and government. Recent incidents such as censoring of movies, mob lynching, use of money power in state elections, spoils system as seen in TNPSC appointments show anti-democra tic values Market:Ushering of 1991 new economic reforms has brought greater role for the market. But the lack of business ethics among the industry is leading to crony capitalism and unholy nexus between capitalists, politicians and bureaucrats. This is seen in the 2G spectrum scam, Coal block Sahara scam, Satyam scam. Very few companies voluntarily indulge in CSR activities. Thus external tools of behavioral control work best only when they are supplemented with ethical and moral change in the society. No supervision from the above can be as effective as automatic control of minds.
Question 9:You are an honest and responsible civil servant. You often observe the followin (a) There is a general perception that adhering to ethical conduct one may face difficulties to oneself and cause problems for the family, whereas unfair practices may help to reach the career goals (b) When the number of people adopting unfair means is large, a small minority having a penchant towards ethical means makes no difference, (c) Sticking to ethical means is detrimental to the larger developmental goals (d) While one may not involve oneself in large unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gifts makes the system more efficient. Examine the above statements with their merits and demerits.
(a) By adhering to ethical principle one may face difficulties to oneself and cause problems for the famil. Eg: IAS officer Ashok Khemka has been transferred so many times which causes inconvenience to his family. He was also given le posting, in which he couldn't maximise his potential. Despite difficulties, we must do our duties ethically. As explained by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita, if Arjuna sways away from his Dharma at the time of crisis, he will be cited as a bad example. Having integrity is morally uplifting. It boosts dignity and self-respect. He becomes role models for our own family and the society. He is also entrusted with leadership opportunities. As Gandhiji had said, in a gentle way, we can shake the world. Such person loses fear and anxiety of law enforcement agency. He doesn't have to lie to cover up his acts. In case of arrest for unethical act there is huge embarrassment and loss of dignity for self and family. Eg: Recent case of family of civil servant committing suicide when caught in a corruption
(b) When the number of people adopting unfair means is large, a small minority having a penchant towards ethical means makes no difference Gandhiji said " Be the change you wish to see in the world." Gandhiji's non-violent means shaped the whole freedom struggle. Vinod Rai revolutionized the office of CAG, T.N.Seshan brought sweeping changes in Election Commision. Committed bureaucrats and politicians can single handedly create changes in the system It takes one person to start the revolution, In famous patriotic song ' Ekla Chalo re..' It has been emphasised that even if your call is not heard, don't get afraid and walk on the path of truth. Even a minority of righteous and upright can use moral persuasion as a tool to change the attitude of mass. Gandhiji's non violent means shaped the whole freedom struggle of the country and proved to be most potent tool against the colonial powers
Small minority can act as a pressure group and use social influence to change attitude of others. Eg: environmental movements to develop environmental ethics e.g. Chipko movement, Kudumbashree move ed out in a small scale with motive to empower women, but today it covers over 80% of the households in Kerala ment in Kerala start (c) Developmental activities may seem to get delayed by sticking to ethical means. But sustainable development cannot take place without ethical conduct. Former be as pure as the end.
Construction of dam but at the cost of displacement of millions, industrialisation by POSCO in Niyamgiri hills at the cost of livelihood of tribals may help to achieve immediate growth but leaves deep resentment in the hearts of people. Developmental goals of a nation are dependent on good governance and ethical governance in which ethical means cannot be compromised (d) Kautilya had said "Just as it is not possible not to taste honey or poison placed on surface of the tongue, even so it's not possible of one dealing with money not to taste money in however small quantity.'" The temptations are plenty. But it is our restraint that determines our integrity. Giving and accepting small gifts puts us in a position of obligation. It develops sense of indebtedness and desire to pay back. By indulging in small acts of corruption one loses one's authority to stop act of corruption. We must never put ourselves in a position that may arouse suspicion of dishonesty. Integrity is non-selective and non negotiable.