Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 4 - 2017: 6-7
Question 6(a): How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices? Answer: Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive and regulate emotions It is a unique intersection of head and heart. It was used in administration and politics as early as 350 B.C by Aristotle. As bureaucracy is moving away from impersonality and dehumanization towards customer service, EI has gained prominence. Some applications include: 1. 2. It helps to enhance leadership skills as we can understand what motivates others Helps to achieve amicable work environment, ability to handle difficult people, aware but not involved in office politics
3. Bureaucrat has to communicate with media, NGOs, employees, citizens, businessmen, politicians. Hence, social skills and EI are of utmost importance. 4. It helps the administrator to handle stress and conflicts at work. Can bounce back from setbacks, handle negative feelings, not prone to aggression and can avoid moodswingS 5. It helps to understand others emotions, which can help him to negotiate better with a trade partner, understand if it is a right time to ask favour or not 6. EI in administration help to build trust and facilitate creative expression 7. EI in administration can help providing vital information and feedback related to the governance The most common example is that of an angry mob protesting for justice. In such situations the administrator must be able to get hold of public emotions and pacify them with his/her words rather than being indifferent to them.
Question 6(b): Strength, peace and security are considered to be the pillars of international relations. Elucidate. Answer: To have successful international relations, a country has to rely equally on all three pillars- strength, peace and security. Any defect in one of the pillars, can make the entire structure shaky. This idea is a culmination of both the theories realism (power grows from a barrel of a gun) and idealism (focus on global good) which form an integral part of international ethics Strength- Iraq under rule of Saddam Hussein possessed great military and economic strength. But it lacked a peaceful approach thereby losing relevance in international arena. Similarly, despite being the most powerful country, U.S has come under criticism for its peace-disrupting approaches in Libya, Iraq, and Afghanistan
Peace- Bhutan is a peaceful country, without much focus on developing an army or economic growth. Thus it has to depend upon assistance from India for security of its nation as seen in recent Doklam standoff. Securitv- Japan possess economic strength and advocated peace post World war by not developing offensive capabilities of its army. It was highly dependent on the U.S and NATO for security from hostile neighbours, thereby jeopardising its say in international arena While India is the largest contributor to the UN Peacekeeping Force, at the same time it is rapidly modernising its army, upgrading its nuclear capabilities and aiming for high economic growth, thereby focussing on all 3 pillars of international relations. Thus equal focus on developing strength, peace and security is required to ensure greater good, upholding of international ethics and fulfilment of national interests.
Question 7(a): The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life. Discuss Nowadays people follow an individualistic and materialistic approach to life. Gandhiji had said we must reduce our wants and learn to live a simple life. Gandhiji also propagated "good of one in good of all"through his idea of sarvodaya. Today's materialistic world often urges us to buy the coolest gadgets, the trendiest clothes, bigger and better things, but they don't realise that possessions and purchases don't buy us happiness. So while we are being pushed towards materialism, it's for monetary gain by corporations, not for our own happiness. of materialism, and find happiness in other ways than buying stuff online or finding joy in the mall Unfortunately, it's hard to escape the trap
Bhagavad Gita also stress on this weakness of human nature which often ignores higher purusharthas of Dharma and Moksha largely due the craving for Kama and Artha. Jainism and Buddhism also proposes certain tenets to live a happy and blissful life. Charvaka theory was one of the most criticised schools of Indian philosophy as it advocated hedonism and materialism. It denied Dharma and Moksha as supreme ends. It advocated the use of Artha (wealth) to get Kama(pleasure) Now, instead of thinking about that iPad, think of your last amazing vacation. Chances are, that vacation makes you feel all warm and fuzzy inside when that iPad makes you feel nothing at all. The reason is that we tend to value experiences over objects.
ental degradation, loss of wildlife, global warming ete get apathy of most Environm of us because we fail to expand our perception of good life and stretch limits of good life to include the joy of clean environment, compassion for animals and sense of responsibility of protecting our planet. We must broaden our perception of a good life by: Making a list of small things that give you great pleasure. Sprinkle them throughout your d 1. ay 2. Plant trees. 3. Spend time with family 4. Practice random acts of kindness. Make someone smile 5. Exercise and stay healthy
uestion 7(b) distribution of its benefits. It has created only some "enclaves of modernit : Increased national wealth did not result in equitable hit and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the maiority." Justif Answer: Article 38 of the DPSP says "The state shall strive minimise the inequalities in income and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status" . Today, India is one of the fastest growing economy, but the benefits of such growth have largely been limited to few. India is still home to largest number of poor 1. Recent Oxfam report says that richest 1% own 58% of total wealth of India. This shows large inequality in wealth distribution in the country 2. Regional imbalance persists in India. North East, Jammu Kashmir, and resource rich states remains underdeveloped while all facilities are concentrated in a few cities 3. Corporate exploitation is well know, profiteering at the cost of quality, compromise on labour welfare and environmental sustainability, evading taxes Rural-urban divide, distress migration, slums in cities, largest slum in Asia is in Mumbai 4.
Measures to reduce this inequality: 1. Theory of Trusteeship by Gandhiji- All property belongs to God, rich is only trustee of wealth and must use it to help the poor. He said everyone should earn their bread and eat it. Even exploitation is a form of violence. 2. Inclusive growth and rights based approach- involving all sections of people in decision making and planning, legislations for empowerment of disadvantaged sections, social security schemes, gender equality CSR activities-CSR has been made mandatory by the government through Companies Act, 2013. Many companies such as Tata, Infosys are partnerin with government and NGOs in implementing social programmes. They also do many charities Rational tax structure- Taxation system is the best tool that can be used by government to redistribute wealth. High tax rate for the rich and corporates and excluding the poor from taxation system or having low taxes for them 3. 3. CSR activities-CSR has schemesner equal 4.