unacademy 29th January 2019 Important Editorial Discussion(How to Boost Women's Workforce Participation) Presented By: Prabhakar Jha
There has been much clamour over the fall in Female Labour Force Participation Rates (FLPRs) in recent years. The data from the Labour Bureau indicate that the FLPR for ages 15 and above has declined from 30% in 2011-12 to 27.4% in 2015-16. Additionally, estimates suggest that not only has there been a fall in FLPR, but the size of the total female labour force has also shrunk from 136.25 million in 2013-14 to about 124.38 million in 2015-16, a drop of 11.86 million in two years. If the ILO projections are any indication, the FLPR is slated to fall to 24% by 2030 which will certainly detract India from achieving SDG 5 (sustainable development goal number 5) eliminating gender inequalities by 2030.
MGNREGA; Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA); Launching special skill training programmes; and heavy investment in programmes that support the education of the girl child Working Women Hostels for ensuring safe accommodation for working women away from their place of residence Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) to ensure sustainable employment and income generation for marginalized and asset-less rural and urban poor women across the country Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) to provide microfinance services to bring about the socio-economic upliftment of poor women National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) to strengthen the overall processes that promote all round Development of Women
The increase in employability touching 47% is a good sign for the market. But we have a long way to go an entire ecosystem should focus on bridging the employability gaps. According to the NSso, the proportion of women engaged primarily in domestic duties has only increased between 2004-05 and 2011-12 from 35.3% to 42.2% in rural areas and from 45.6% to 48% in urban areas. There are two important considerations that warrant the attention of policymakers. The amendment to Maternity Benefit Act has inserted an additional section that provides for the cr che facility in every establishment having 50 or more workers. The threshold for applicability of the provision related to is high and should be reduced. The law perpetuates gender stereotypes to the extent that it recognizes that child care is just the mother's responsibility by not giving male employees an equal benefit to visiting their child during the day. All of these limitations must be looked into. A recent report suggests that reductions in the Centre's contribution from 90 percent to 60 percent in 2017
Child-care subsidies free up mothers' time to enter the labour force and have had significant implications in impacting female employment. Social norms are alterable, and broader economic trends and government policies are what really matter. Initiatives such as Skill India, Make in India, and new gender-based quotas- from corporate boards to the police force- can spur a positive change. The government can also work towards making reflective programmes on gender equality in secondary education compulsory that challenge the traditional dynamics that dictate the duties of the woman to be a 'caregiver' and man to be a 'breadwinner'
GS And GA faculty @ Mahendra's Coaching Institute. Teaching Polity, and international relations for 7 years