unacademy 21st January 2019 Important Editorial Discussion (Chasing Peace in Nagaland) Presented By: Prabhakar Jha
Despite signing of historic Naga framework agreement 4 years back between the central government and the Naga groups led by National Socialist Council of Nagaland Isak-Muviah (NSCN-IM) long lasting peace remains elusive in the region. The peace framework remains a work in progress without a concrete shape and timeline making it nothing but a mere disappointment.
History of Nagaland Insurgency The British annexed Assam in 1826, and in 1881, the Naga Hills too became part of British India In 1946 Naga National Council (NNC) was formed under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo. It declared Nagaland "an independent state" on August 14, 1947. On March 22, 1952, Phizo formed the underground Naga Federal Government (NFG) and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) The Government of India sent in the Army to deal with insurgency and, in 1958, Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act was enacted. The Naga Hills, a district of Assam, was upgraded to a Nagaland state in 1963. On November 11, 1975, the government got a section of NNC leaders to sign the Shillong Accord, under which this section of NNC agreed to give up arms. A group of about 140 members led by Thuingaleng Muivah, who were at that time in China, refused to accept the Shillong Accord, and formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980 In 1988, the NSCN split into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (Khaplang) after a violent clash. While the NNC began to fade away, the NSCN (IM) came to be seen as the "mother of all insurgencies" in the region.
without clear mandate or objectives- special arrangement' mrethan one Loopholes impacts the more than one organisation whole region Peace Accord demand for a separate "frontier Nagaland or Eastern Nagaland integration of contiguous Naga-inhabited areas
Demands of the Insurgents The current demands of the NSCN (IM) have toned down from complete sovereignty to greater autonomous region within the Indian constitutional framework with due regard to the uniqueness of Naga history and traditions NSCN (IM) seeks a "Greater Nagalim" comprising "all contiguous Naga- inhabited areas", along with Nagaland. That includes several districts of Assam, Arunachal and Manipur, and also a large tract of Myanmar.
What Affects the Land of Nagas . Armed Cadres or Military Wing of insurgent groups remains Intact in-spite of Ceasefire and despite Suspension of Operations and have not shrunk, neither their resources have dried up which remains a constant threat to peace in the region. Insurgent groups have become a way of life in the region, with every group running their own parallel government and extorting huge amount of money from Nagas as well as non-Nagas. . There are violent differences between the NSCN (IM) and the NSCN (K) led by S.S. Khaplang which are a huge roadblock for any accord to succeed in the region. Politics has played a far greater role in destabilising the region. Insurgent groups have been used, raised and protected by political parties to settle scores or to come to power. . One of the major drivers of any insurgent movement is ideological belief and hope of success. However, the Naga movement seems to have lost its original goals and ideological stand on the basis of which it was initially established. . The leaders and cadres now seem to be motivated by the more materialistic benefits coming out of the conflict and most of the Naga insurgent groups are no more than extortion and crime syndicates. Government has often exploited villager's land for their resources, violating the constitution which results in corrosion of the tribal's belief in any governmental scheme. Despite resource rich region, development has remained a distant dream for tribal people with very few jobs and scarcity of basic amenities.
GS And GA faculty @ Mahendra's Coaching Institute. Teaching Polity, and international relations for 7 years