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Trigonometric functions

Trigonometric functions are the essential six functions that have as their domain input value the angle of a right triangle and as their range a numeric response.


The trigonometric functions, like f(x) = sinx, have a domain defined by the angle x, written in degrees or radians, and a range defined by the interval -1 to 1. Similarly, one may distinguish domain and range from all other functions. Trigonometric functions are frequently used in mathematics, particularly calculus, geometry, and algebra.

In the following sections, you will learn all about trigonometric functions throughout the four quadrants, their graphs, domain and range, equations, and differentiation and integration of trigonometric functions.

What are Trigonometric Functions?

 Trigonometric functions mainly have six essential trigonometric functions namely sine function, cosine function, secant function, cosecant function, tan function, and cotangent functionThe trigonometric functions and identities are obtained by dividing a right-angled triangle into two equal halves. The perpendicular side, the hypotenuse, and the base sides of a right triangle. 

The Principal Values of Trigonometric Functions

In contrast to other functions,  trigonometric functions have a domain denoted by degrees or radians.The domains are referred to as shared values and are often used in calculations due to their widespread use. The primary values of trigonometric functions have been determined by beginning with a unit circle. Additionally, these integers satisfy all trigonometric equations.

Trigonometric Functions in the  Four Quadrants

The acute angle (less than 90 degrees) is measured anticlockwise around the positive x- and y-axes. These trigonometric ratios have a variety of numeric signs (+ or -) depending on whether they are on the positive or negative axis of the quadrant in question. 

Sin(x) and Cosec(x) have positive trigonometric ratios in quadrants I and II and negative trigonometric ratios in quadrants III and IV. Sec(x) and Cosec(x) are positive in the second quadrant. All trigonometric functions, by definition, have a positive range in the first quadrant. Tan(x) and Cot(x) are positive trigonometric functions in only Quadrants I and III; Cos(x) and Sec(x) are positive trigonometric ratios in only Quadrants I and IV.

Trigonometric Function Graphs 

In trigonometric function graphs, the θ domain value is shown on the horizontal x-axis and the range value on the vertical y-axis. In contrast to other trigonometric functions, the graphs of Sin(x) and Tan(x) do not pass through the origin. Sin(x) and Cos(x) have values in the range [-1, 1]. 

A positive number indicates the domain of the trigonometric function; a negative value indicates the range of the trigonometric function. The domain values are specified in degrees or radians, whereas the range is specified in absolute numbers. Generally, the domain of a trigonometric function is an actual numerical value; however, some angles are forbidden since they result in an infinite range. 

Trigonometric functions Formulas

Various equations for trigonometric functions exist, including reciprocal identities, Pythagorean formulas, sum and difference of identities, formulas for multiple and submultiple angles, sum, and product of identities, and formulas for numerous angles. The following formulas may be readily determined by dividing the number of sides of a right-angled triangle by the triangle’s number of sides. 

The equations for the essential trigonometric functions may be utilized to get the formulae for the higher trigonometric functions. Reciprocal identities are often used to simplify trigonometric problems and have various uses.

  • sin θ = Opposite Side/Hypotenuse.
  • cos θ = Adjacent Side/Hypotenuse.
  • tan θ = Opposite Side/Adjacent Side.
  • sec θ = Hypotenuse/Adjacent Side.
  • cosec θ = Hypotenuse/Opposite Side.
  • cot θ = Adjacent Side/Opposite Side.

Reciprocal Identities

  • cosec θ = 1/sin θ
  • sec θ = 1/cos θ
  • cot θ = 1/tan θ
  • sin θ = 1/cosec θ
  • cos θ = 1/sec θ
  • tan θ = 1/cot θ

Inverse Trigonometry Formulas







An Integrated Trigonometric Function

The integration of trigonometric functions simplifies determining the area under the graph of a trigonometric function. It is often feasible to calculate the area under the trigonometric function graph using any of the axis lines and a predefined limit value. It is possible to determine the area of flat surfaces with irregular forms in a general method by integrating trigonometric functions.




-cosx + c


sinx + c


x/2 – sin(2x)/4 + c = (x – sinx ∙ cosx)/2 + c


x/2 + sin(2x)/4 + c = (x + sinx ∙ cosx)/2 + c


-ln|cosx| + c


ln|sinx| + c


ln|secx + tanx| + c


-ln|cscx + cotx| + c


tanx + c


-cotx + c

Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions 

Differentiation of trigonometric functions yields the slope of the tangent of the curve. Cos(x) differentiates six, and by applying the x value in degrees for Cos(x) function to a particular point on the Sin(x) curve, we may compute the slope of the Sin(x) tangent. The differentiation equations of trigonometric functions help calculate the equation of a tangent, regular, or identifying errors in calculations.

  • d/dx. sinx = cosx
  • d/dx. cosx = -sinx
  • d/dx. tanx = sec2x
  • d/dx. cotx = -cosec2x
  • d/dx.secx = secx.tanx
  • d/dx. cosecx = – cosecx.cotx


In this article, we learned about trigonometric functions. Trigonometric functions, which are also known as Circular Functions, are the functions of an angle in a triangle, which is a straightforward definition. In other words, the trig functions are in charge of figuring out how the angles and sides of a triangle are linked together. The basic trigonometric functions are sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant. Hope you have enjoyed learning about it.

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