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 How to Find Eigenvectors

Eigenvectors have several applications in the physical sciences, mainly quantum mechanics. This article will learn how to find eigenvectors and their different types.


A vector called the ‘eigenvector’ is linked to a set of equations. ‘Latent vector’ and ‘suitable vector’ are other names for eigenvectors of a matrix. A square matrix is used to measure these things. Eigenvectors can also be used to solve differential equations and many other things. 

Eigenvectors represent directions. Consider displaying your data on a multidimensional scatterplot and an individual eigenvector as a specific ‘direction’ in your data scatterplot. Eigenvalues are used to represent magnitude or importance. This article will go over the method of how to find an eigenvector. The equation that corresponds to each eigenvalue of a matrix is shown in the following way:

AX = λ X 

It is called the eigenvector equation. This equation lets us solve the Eigenvector for each eigenvalue.

How to find an Eigenvector?

One can find eigenvectors by going through the steps below:

  • For a matrix A,  (A–  λI) =0, where ‘I’ would be in the same order as A, the equation determinant is used to figure out its eigenvalues: Each of the eigenvalues of 1, 2,… is named a number
  • AX =  λX or (A –  λ I) X = 0 could be shifted to work
  • Find the determinant of the matrix |A- λ I| and equate the polynomial obtained with 0 to solve the equation for  λ
  • Solve (A –  λ I) X = 0 for values of x by substituting the values of λ obtained in the previous step
  • The nonzero value of x will be an eigenvector of A correspoding to the eigenvalue  λ
  • Repeat the process for the remaining eigenvalues to find the eigenvector

Eigenvector Orthogonality

A vector quantity has a certain amount of magnitude and a particular direction. So, an eigenvector has a specific volume for a particular order. Orthogonality is the idea that two eigenvectors of a matrix should be at odds. These eigenvectors are called orthogonal eigenvectors if they make a right angle with each other when they do.

Types of Eigenvectors

In general, there are two types of eigenvectors:

  • The left Eigenvector
  • The right Eigenvector

The Left Eigenvector

The ideal Eigenvector is represented as a column vector that follows the following rule:


Given a matrix of order n, let λ be one of its eigenvalues. This is how it works:

XL is a row vector of matrix i,e., [ X1   X2   X3 ….  Xn].

The Right Eigenvector

The Eigenvector is represented in the form of a column vector that meets this rule:


Given a matrix of order n, let be λ one of its eigenvalues. This is how it works.

XR is a column vector of a matrix.

Applications of Eigenvectors

There are a lot of essential things you can do with eigenvectors:

  • In maths, eigenvector decomposition is used to solve linear equations of the first order, rank matrices, do differential calculus, and more
  • Eigenvectors are used in physics when things move simply like a wave
  • This idea is used a lot in quantum mechanics
  • Eigenvectors can be used in almost every field of engineering
  • Eigenvalues can be used to figure out how much information can be sent through a medium of communication like a phone line or the air
  • By finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the communication channel and then water-filling on the eigenvalues, you can figure out how the medium works
  • This is called an eigenvalue. It’s the natural frequency of the system that makes the bridge
  • It can be used to check the stability of the construction
  • The idea of eigenvalues is used to build a car stereo system
  • You can use it to help your car move like it does when listening to music
  • It is used to uncouple three-phase systems along their symmetrical lines
  • Some things happen in the natural world that is discussed with this world
  • Linear mapping eigenvalues show how the transformation caused much distortion, and eigenvectors show how the distortion was oriented
  • It gives a rough idea of what Principal Component Analysis is

Eigenvectors Linear Independence

Eigenvectors that have different eigenvalues are linearly independent. However, this has consequences: If there is no more than one eigenvalue for each row in a matrix, its corresponding eigenvectors are spread out across all of the space in which column vectors come.

They will all be spanned as long as there aren’t any bad eigenvalues and their algebraic multiplicity is the same as their geometric multiplicity.

However, if at least one bad repeated eigenvalue, the spanning doesn’t work.


Eigenvectors make linear transformations simple to comprehend. The more the number of directions you acquire to understand a linear transformation’s behavior, the easier it becomes to grasp it; thus, you need to attach linearly independent eigenvectors as much as you can connect to one linear transformation. However, solving more and more about how to find eigenvector examples will help you master the method. 

Break down how they change a line into a series of distinct ‘actions,’ which can be done independently, instead of all at once. The matrix/linear transformation may not be evident if you don’t comprehend these ‘lines of action.’


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the JEE Examination Preparation.

Is it true that all eigenvectors are linearly independent?

Answer: Whenever the eigenvectors of a composite are different, the eigenvectors of the matrix are ...Read full

For what Eigenvector is used?

Answer:Eigenvectors are being used to make a linear transformation easier to understand. Think of eigenvecto...Read full

Where are Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues used?

Answer: Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues are valuable in linear differential equations; they help you t...Read full

What are the building blocks of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors?

Answer: Matrices are used to represent significant information sets in machine learning problems. Eigenvalue...Read full

What is an Eigenvalue?

Answer: The scalar is employed in the transformation of an Eigenvector.