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 Adjoint of Matrix

Adjoint of Matrix is one of the most powerful tools in arithmetic. It is also called an adjugate matrix and is utilised in areas of business and science.

A simple technique used to find out a matrix inverse can be defined as the adjoint of a matrix. A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers or functions in algebra.  Matrices may be classified according to the number of rows and columns within which the items are placed.

An adjoint matrix can also be referred to as an adjugate matrix. It is utilised in various areas of life and business such as finance, sales, science etc. It shows its vital role in alternative branches like genetic science, economics, social science, and technology. 

What is a Matrix?

A matrix or a plural matrix is a rectangular shaped array consisting of numbers, symbols, or expressions that are organised in rows and columns.

Usually, a matrix is shown as a capital letter in bold fonts, such as A, B, X etc. The elements or the items of the matrix are shown as lowercase letters with a double subscript (e.g., aij, bij, xij).

The Formula of Adjoint of a Matrix

With the help of the cofactor and transpose of a matrix, we can derive the formula for the adjoint of a matrix. Below are the formulas and steps involved in determining the adjoint matrix for a given matrix.

Adjoint of a Matrix 2 x 2

Let A be the 2 x 2 matrix and is given by:

A=[a14   a15

     a24  a25]

Then, the adjoint of this matrix is:

adj A = [A14  A24

              A15  A25]


A14 = Cofactor of a14

A15 = Cofactor of a15

A24 = Cofactor of a24

Alternatively, the adj A can also be calculated by interchanging a14 and a25 and by changing signs of a15 and a24. 

Properties of the Adjoint of a Matrix

Following are a few important and useful properties of adjoint of a matrix. 

  1. A.adj(A) = adj.(A).A =|A|I

Here, A is a square matrix, I is an identity matrix and |A| is the determination of matrix A

  1. Determination of adjoint A is = determination of A power n – 1, where A is invertible n *n square matrix.

|adjA| = |A| n-1

  1. adj(adjA) = |A| n-2-.A , where A is n *n  invertible square matrix. 

Use of Adjoint of a Matrix

A few uses or functions of the adjoint of a matrix are mentioned below:

  • The adjoint of a matrix helps in solving the system of linear equations. It helps us know whether the answer to equations is consistent or inconsistent.
  • Programmers use matrices and their inverse matrices to code or code letters. Matrices are often used to encrypt message codes. A message includes a series of binary numbers that are resolved using coding theory for communication. As a result, the concept of matrices is employed to resolve such equations.
  • Engineers and physicists develop models of physical structures and execute the precise calculations needed to operate difficult machinery. Fine-tuned matrix transformation computations are employed in physics, networks, aeroplanes and spacecraft, and chemical processes.
  • The matrices are essential when applying Kirchhoff’s laws of voltage and current to resolve issues.
  • Algebra is employed to explore electrical circuits, quantum physics, and optics. These matrices are crucial in measuring battery power outputs and changing electricity into alternative usable energy by resistors. 
  • Many IT organisations use matrix information structures to trace user data, run search queries, and maintain databases. In data security, several frameworks are designed to work with matrices. Matrices are utilised in electronic information compression, like handling biometric data in Mauritius’ new identity card.


The transpose of a compound matrix of the square matrix is named the adjoint of the matrix. Adjoint of the matrix A is denoted by adj A, and can additionally be referred to as adjugate matrix or adjunct matrix. The adjoint of a matrix is generated by getting the transpose of the matrix’s cofactor members. It is one of the best ways to calculate a matrix’s inverse and the most powerful tool in arithmetic. 

We have learnt from the adjoint of a matrix, its properties, and examples that most vital issues can be solved with matrices. We have linear equations and different mathematical functions like calculus, optics, and physics that are all done with these instruments.

It has a good variety of applications within the world that have semiconductor diodes, thereby enjoying an important role in arithmetic.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the JEE Examination Preparation.

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