Vectors are magnitude and direction geometrical elements. A vector’s magnitude is represented by its length, which is shown as a line with an arrow pointing in the direction of the vector. As a result, vectors have both beginning and ending points and are represented by arrows. The notion of vectors evolved over a 200-year span. Physical quantities such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration are expressed using vectors. In addition, the late nineteenth-century breakthrough of electromagnetic induction ushered in the usage of vectors.

**Vector Components:**

The components of a vector dictate how it is divided. By dividing a vector with reference to each of the axes, we may compute its components. The many components of a vector can then be combined to generate the entire vector representation. In general, vectors are represented by an x-axis and y-axis in a two-dimensional coordinate plane, or by the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis in a three-dimensional space. Vectors are mathematical representations that are directed and magnitude-based.

The direction of a vector in a two-dimensional coordinate system is determined by the angle it makes with the positive x-axis.

Here, vector V is split into two components: vx and vy.

Vx is known as the Horizontal Component of the vector V.

Vy is known as the vertical component of the vector V.

Consider a vector **A **= Ax i + Ay j

Now the horizontal component is: Ax

And the vertical component is: Ay

The initial vector, as specified by a collection of axes. The horizontal component of the vector extends from its origin to its furthest x-coordinate. The vertical component extends from the x-axis to the vector’s most vertical point. The two components, along with the vector, create a right triangle.

**Adding Vectors using components: **

To combine vectors, just represent them in terms of their horizontal and vertical components, then add them together.

A vector of length 5 with a 36.9-degree angle to the horizontal axis, for example, will have a horizontal component of 4 units and a vertical component of 3 units. We would receive a vector twice as long at the same angle if we added this to another vector of the same magnitude and direction. By summing the horizontal components of the two vectors (4 + 4 ) and the two vertical components (3 + 3 ), this may be observed. These additions result in a new vector with an 8 (4 + 4 ) horizontal component and a 6 (3 + 3 ) vertical component. Simply position the tail of the vertical component at the head (arrow side) of the horizontal component and draw a line from the origin to the head of the vertical component to determine the resultant vector. The resulting vector is this new line. Because each of its components are twice as massive as they were previously, it should be twice as lengthy as the original.

**Subtraction of vectors using components:**

To remove vectors by components, subtract the two horizontal components from each other and repeat for the vertical components. Then, like in the last part, draw the vector that results.

**Finding components:**

Problem: Find the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) components of a 12 magnitude vector that makes a 45 degree angle with the positive x-axis.

Answer: V= 12 is the magnitude of the given vector, and it forms a 45 degrees angle.

Vx = VCosθ = 12 is the x component of the vector.

Cos45° = 12.(1/√2) = 6√2.

Vy = VSinθ = 12 is the y component of the vector.

Sin 45° = 12.

(1/√2) = 6√2.

As a result, both the x and y components of the vector are equal to 6√2.

**Conclusion:**

A vector is sometimes described as a collection of vector components that combine to form the vector. The projections of the vector on a set of mutually perpendicular reference axes are generally these components (basis vectors). The vector is said to be deconstructed or resolved with relation to that set. It is not unique since the axes on which the vector is projected dictate the breakdown or resolution of the vector into components.