Geometrical entities with magnitude and direction are known as vectors. A vector is represented as a line with an arrow pointing in the direction of the vector, and the length of the vector denotes its magnitude. Vectors are therefore represented by arrows and have both beginning and terminal locations. The notion of vectors evolved over a 200-year span. Vectors are used to express physical quantities like displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

In addition, the invention of electromagnetic induction in the late nineteenth century ushered in the use of vectors.

Definition

In mathematics, a vector is a geometric object with both magnitude and direction. Vectors have an initial point at which they begin and a terminal point that indicates the point’s end position. Addition, subtraction, and multiplication are some of the operations that may be performed on vectors. In this post, we’ll look into vector operations in depth.

## Examples of Vectors:

In physics, vectors are extremely significant. Velocity, displacement, acceleration, and force, for example, are all vector quantities with a magnitude and a direction.

## Different types of vectors:

The qualities of the vectors, such as magnitude, direction, and connection with other vectors, are used to identify them as categories of vectors. These many forms of vectors are used for a variety of arithmetic operations and vector computations.

Zero Vectors: Zero vectors have no magnitude. The zero vector has no direction and no magnitude. It’s also known as vector additive identity.

Unit Vectors: Unit vectors are indicated by the letter a and have a magnitude of one. The multiplicative identity of vectors is another name for it. Unit vectors have a length of one. It is commonly used to indicate a vector’s direction.

Position Vectors: In three-dimensional space, position vectors are utilised to identify the position and direction of movement of vectors. Position vectors’ magnitude and direction can be modified in relation to other bodies. The location vector is another name for it.

Equal Vectors: If the corresponding components of two or more vectors are equal, they are said to be equal. Equal vectors are the same in magnitude and direction. They can have various starting and ending sites, but they must have the same length and direction.

Negative Vectors: When two vectors have the same magnitude but opposite directions, they are said to be the negative of each other. Vector A is said to be the negative of vector B or vice versa if vectors A and B have identical lengths but opposite orientations.

Parallel Vectors: If two or more vectors have the same direction but not necessarily the same magnitude, they are said to be parallel vectors. A zero-degree angle exists between two parallel vectors. Antiparallel vectors are those whose direction angles differ by 180 degrees. Antiparallel vectors have opposite directions.

Orthogonal: When the angle between two or more vectors in space is 90 degrees, they are said to be orthogonal. The dot product of orthogonal vectors, in other words, is always 0.

Co-initial Vectors: Co-initial vectors are vectors with the same beginning point.

### Displacement Vector:

A displacement vector shows how an object’s location has changed. This displacement vector comprises not only the distance travelled but also the direction of motion. Assume you begin your journey at home and travel to school. The direction of your displacement vector begins at home and ends at school. There is just one straight line. It doesn’t go the same road you did. If you start at home and go around the block with your dog, on the other hand, your endpoint is still at home, thus your displacement vector will be 0 since your beginning and endpoint positions are the same. You didn’t move anyplace in terms of displacement.

We must first define a coordinate system and a convention for the axes before we can describe motion in two and three dimensions. To find a particle at point P(x, y, z) in three dimensions, we usually utilise the coordinates x, y, and z. The variables x, y, and z are functions of time (t) if the particle is moving:

X = x(t)

Y= y(t)

Z= z(t)

On the coordinate plane, this displacement vector can be drawn.

## Velocity Vector:

A velocity vector represents the rate at which an object’s position changes. A velocity vector’s magnitude represents an object’s speed, while the vector direction specifies the object’s direction. Vector addition principles can be used to add or subtract velocity vectors.

Two-dimensional motion is clearly more sophisticated than one-dimensional motion because velocities can point in diagonal directions. Consider a baseball travelling horizontally and vertically with a diagonal velocity of v. To make calculations easier, we divide this velocity component into horizontal vx and vertical vy components. By splitting the diagonal velocity v into horizontal vx and vertical vy components, we can deal with each direction separately. This strategy of dividing up the vectors into components works even when the vector is not velocity, such as force or momentum.

Calculating the Total Velocity’s Magnitude and Angle

We may calculate magnitude using the Pythagorean theorem.

V2 = vx2 + vy2

We may calculate the magnitude of the overall velocity vector by taking the square root of the previous equation.

V= (vx2 + vy2)1/2

We may determine the angle of the velocity vectors by knowing both the velocity components of the total vector: angle = tan-1(vy/vx).

## Acceleration Vector:

We commonly wish to know an object’s acceleration vector at every point in time along its journey in addition to its displacement and velocity vectors. This acceleration vector is the instantaneous acceleration, which we can get from the velocity function’s derivative with respect to time, as we saw in the previous chapter. In two or three dimensions, the only difference is that these are now vector quantities. Taking a derivative of the velocity vector in terms of the time we get the acceleration vector as

A = dv/dt

### Conclusion:

A vector is a component of a vector space in mathematics and physics. The vectors have special names for several different vector spaces, which are given below. A Euclidean vector is a geometric entity with both length and direction that is commonly represented as an arrow with an arbitrary beginning point selected for convenience. Vector algebra may be used to scale or add such vectors to each other. A vector space, on the other hand, is an ensemble of vectors. These objects are defined by their dimension and are the topic of linear algebra.