Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Human Values: Values & Ethics By Dr. Roman Saini
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How do values relates to ethics? To behave ethically is to behave in a manner that is consistent with what is generally considered to be right or moral. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is wrong, and doing what is right or wrong is what we mean by ethics What does "generally considered to be right" mean? That is a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not the behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong. . .
Perhaps the first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society". . 6S .Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior. For example, in Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. Therefore.societies not only regulate the behavior of their members but also define their societal core values As tolerance and brotherhood are the core values of Indian Society
Experience often has led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. Since societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles. One example is the notion of reciprocity. ("One good deed deserves another.") Another is the notion of good intent. ("A gentleman's word is his bond.") A third is the notion of appreciation of merit in others regardless of personal feelings. ("Give the Devil his due.") These all contain implied "shoulds" about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies. .
Core Ethical Values When we think of our values, we think of what is important to us in our lives, for example, security, independence, wisdom, success, kindness, pleasure etc. . Each of us holds numerous values with varying degrees of importance. A particular value may be very important to one person, but unimportant to another. Using core ethical values as the basis for ethical thinking can help detect situations where we focus so hard on upholding one value that we sacrifice another. .
For Example, we are loyal to friends and so do not always tell the truth about their actions. There are following six core ethical values that comprise all associated values; 1. Trustworthiness 2. Respect 3. Responsibility 4. Fairness 5. Caring 6. Citizenship
1. Trustworthiness Trustworthiness concerns a variety of behavioral qualities such as Honesty, Integrity, Reliability, and Loyalty. Honesty: There is no more fundamental ethical value than honesty Honesty in communications and act is about intent to convey the truth as best we know and do it and to avoid communicating in a way likely to mislead or deceive
Integrity: There are no differences in the way an ethical person makes decisions from situation to situation and no difference in the way they act at work and at home, in public and alone. They stay in control. The four enemies of integrity are: 1. Self-interest Things we want. 2. Self-protection-Things we don't want. 3. Self-deceptionA refusal to see a situation clearly 4. Self-righteousness- An end-justifies-the-means attitude.
Lovalty: Loyalty is about promoting and protecting the interests of certain people, organizations or affiliations. Some relationships like husband-wife, employer-employee, citizen-country etc. create an expectation of loyalty . It focuses to keep 1. Safeguarding Confidential Information 2. Avoiding Conflicting Interests