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Human Values: The Value Theory By Dr. Roman Saini
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The Value Theory The Values Theory defines values as desirable. trans-situational goals varying in importance, that serve as quiding principles in people's lives The following five features are common to all values; 1. . . Values are beliefs. But they are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold ideas Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain. 2.
3. Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. 4. Values quide the selection or evaluation of actions. policies. people, and events. That is, values serve as standards or criteria. 5. Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People's values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.
Most important ten motivationally distinct, broad and basic values are derived from three universal requirements of the human condition: 1. Needs of individuals as biological organisms, 2. Requisites of coordinated social interaction, and 3. Survival and welfare needs of groups. These ten basic values are intended to include all the core values recognized in cultures around the world. Each of the ten basic values can be characterized by describing its central motivational goal: .
1. Self-Direction Independent thought and action; choosing, creating, exploring. 2. Stimulation- Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life 3. Hedonism- Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself. 4. Achievement Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. 5. Power- Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. Security- Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. 6.
7. Conformity- Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. Tradition-Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self. Benevolence- Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact (or in society/group) Universalism- Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature. 8. 9. 10.
Structure of Value Relations Actions in pursuit of any value have psychological, practical, and social consequences that may conflict or may be congruent with the pursuit of other values For example, the pursuit of achievement values may conflict with the pursuit of benevolence values, since seeking success for self is likely to obstruct actions aimed at enhancing the welfare of others who need one's help. However, the pursuit of achievement values may be compatible with the pursuit of power values, since seeking personal success for oneself is likely to strengthen and to be strengthened by actions aimed at enhancing one's own social position and authority over others. .
Another example is the pursuit of novelty and change (stimulation values) is likely to undermine the preservation of time-honoured customs (tradition values) In contrast, the pursuit of tradition values is congruent with the pursuit of conformity values as both the values motivate actions of submission to external expectations. Hence, the conflicts and congruities among all ten basic values yield an integrated structure of values. This structure can be summarized with two orthogonal dimensions; 1. 2. . . . Self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence Openness to change vs. conservation