Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Human Values: Acquisition & Influencing Factors By Dr. Roman Saini
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How values are acquired? Development of values takes place during the process of socialization. Since socio-cultural milieu is different for different societies, differences in cultures are reflected in the values. Socialization always occurs in a context. The smallest of the context in which the person lives and moves is the immediate family, school teachers, and peers and the neighbourhood, play area etc. Another layer of context is the direct involvement of individuals affecting such as parent's interaction with neighbours etc. . .
Still, the wider context relates to the broader community in which the person lives. Examples are a family network, mass media, work places, family friends. Though one might not have direct contact, the different layers of systems affect the one's development and socialization. Each layer of context interacts making a highly complex context in which we grow up. Values are learned as we learn habits in the process of growing up. Learning of values takes place quite early in life by the word of mouth or simple commands from parents and other adults at home. . .
The nature of association positive or negative and its frequency is important to form a value. . When the end result leads to appreciation, positive association forms but when the end result gives rise to pain, suffering, destruction etc., negative associations are formed with a particular act, idea or behaviour. . The person tends to repeat the act or behaviour which serves the desired end. . When these are repeated under favourable conditions of reinforcement, they form into habits and get deeply ingrained as strong behavioural tendencies .
How gender influence values? Gender Psychoanalytic theorists contend that women are more related and more affiliated with others than men, whereas men are more autonomous and more individuated. Cultural feminist theories posit women's "self-in-relation," in contrast to men's greater autonomy. They claim that women show more concern for an ethic of care and responsibility, while men focus more on an ethic of rights based on ustice and fairness.
Evolutionary psychologists postulate that women probably gained an evolutionary advantage by caring for the welfare of in-group members. Men probably gained an evolutionary advantage by attaining and exploiting status and power. e Social role theorists attribute gender differences to the culturally distinctive roles of men and women. . They hold that the allocation of women to nurturing roles reduces competition and preserves family harmony. . Women assume more "expressive," person-oriented roles, men engage in and learn more "instrumental," task-oriented roles.
Socialization also contributes as societies typically socialize boys and girls to occupy different social roles and to affirm different life goals and sanction them for failing to do so. These theories share a view of women as more relational, expressive, and communal, and of men as more autonomous, instrumental, and agentic. These dissimilarities in men's and women's motives and orientations are likely to find expression as different value priorities Specifically, men more attribute importance to power values and women attribute more importance especially to benevolence values and also to universalism, conformity, and security values. . .
How education influence values? Educational experiences presumably promote the intellectual openness, flexibility, and breadth of perspective essential for self-direction values. These same experiences increase the openness to non-routine ideas and activity central to stimulation values . In contrast, these experiences challenge the unquestioning acceptance of prevailing norms, expectations, and traditions, thereby undermining conformity and tradition values. . The increasing competencies to cope with the life that people acquire through education may also reduce the importance of security values. .
Sources of Value Priorities People's life circumstances provide opportunities to pursue or express some values more easily than others. For example, wealthy persons can pursue power values more easily, and people who work in free professions can express self-direction values more easily. . .Life circumstances also impose constraints against pursuing or expressing some values. For example, having dependent children constraints parents to limit their pursuit of stimulation values by avoiding risky activities. .