Nandini Maharaj is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: PYQ & SYLLABUS BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
ABOUT ME Nandini Maharaj BA Hons. History (Lady Shri Ram College) . MA Human Rights (Sheffield Hallam University) .Reader, dancer . Rate, review, and recommend!
TOPICS SYLLABUS PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
SYLLABUS . The History of the World Events, forms and effect on the society from 18th century Like world wars industrial revolution, colonization, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism.
2013 MAINS . "The American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism." Substantiate
2013 MAINS Mercantilism was the key economic theory of 18th century Britain. It was based in the idea that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism. Mercantilism and colonialism were interconnected. The British used colonies as suppliers of raw materials and consumers of finished goods to create the favourable balance of trade that increased Britains wealth and power. The British actively discouraged the American colonies from developing an economy of its own
2013 MAINS The colonies were forbidden to use non-British ships. . 1. Certain products, such as tobacco, cotton and sugar could be exported only to England. 2. Heavy duties were imposed on import of goods from other places. 3. The colonies were also forbidden from starting certain industries, e.g. iron and textiles. Instead, they were forced to import these goods from England. Thus in every possible way, the growth of industry and trade in the colonies was impeded. This economic stifling of the colonies to support the British was one of the most important reasons for the American Revolution. Thus at one level, the revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism.
2013 MAINS . What policy instruments were deployed to contain the Great Economic Depression?
2013 MAINS . The Great Economic Depression arose in post-First World War America (1929-1933), and spread to West European capitalist nations. . President Hoover encouraged factory owners to not reduce wages, and not lay off workers. He also declared a one-year moratorium on war debts that foreign countries owed to the USA. This was to encourage foreign governments to save money and buy American goods. However, these steps did not counter the economic depression effectively. . President Roosevelt started a reconstruction programme called the New Deal. The programme had three aims: relief, recovery and reform
2013 MAINS It swivelled the economy away from laissez-faire policies. Government spending injected money in the economy. 1. The government took over the banks temporarily and guaranteed depositors their money 2. Stock market was reformed with the Securities Exchange Commission. 3. Farmers Relief Act was passed to increase agricultural incomes. 4. Civil Conservation Corps were organised to employ the youth in conservation projects. Public works construction was undertaken. Roads, schools and hospitals were constructed. Soup kitchens organised. All this increased employment 5. National Industry Recovery Act was passed to stimulate industry, generate employment and thus push up demand and supply. 6. Child labour was abolished, maximum working day was capped at 8 hours. Minimum wage was introduced. Social Security act was passed. All these initiatives did not produce immediately. But eventually, they were effective in containing the Great Economic Depression