STRUCTURE OF CELL
The parts of cell are as follows: Cell wall PLasma membrane or cell membrane Nucleus Cutoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Mitochondria Plastids Vacuole
MITOCHONDRIA - Mitochondria are round "tube-like" organelles that provide energy to a cell in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) for performing different chemical activities for the sustainance of life. - The mitochondria is also called powerhouse of the cell. - It is surrounded by two membranes. ATP Synthase Particles Inter Membrane Space Matrix Ribosome Granules - The outer membrane is porous where the inner membrane has deep folds that provides a large surface to perform the INNER MEMBRANE OUTER MEMBRANE DNA chemical reactions required for the generation of ATP. Fig. Structure of mitochondria he inner membrane is compartmentalized into various cristae. - The ground substance or space enclosed by inner membrane is called matrix. - Mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes and are hence capable to produce some of their required proteins all by themselves.
PLASTIDS - Plastids refer to the double membrane bound organelles found in plant cells. - They are found in the cutoplasm. - Plants make and store food in plastids Stroma Granum Nucleoid Ribosomes Starch Granule They have their own DNA and Ribosomes. They can be classified into two types: o Chloroplast Fig. Chloroplast e Leucoplast Chloroplasts are the plastids containing the green pigment called chloro necessary to carry the process of photosynthesis. phyll. They are
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Nuclear Membrane is absent. Nuclear Membrane is present. Membrane-bound cell organelles are absent. Membrane-bound cell organelles are present. Mitochondria are present. Golgi apparatus is absent. Undefined region with nucleic Mitochondria are absent Golgi apparatus is absent. Region bounded by nuclear membrane contains DNA and acid is called nucleoid. Proteins The concentration of DNA is DNA is found in nucleus, low OW. plastids, and mitochondria. Sexual reproduction is absent. Sexual reproduction is generally present. CeOrgoneles Nucleor Menbrane Cytoplionm Animal Cell
Vacuoles in PLant vs. Animal cell Vacuoles are fluid filled organelles surrounded by a membrane. Animal cells have small sized vacuoles whereas plant cells have large vacuoles. It provides turbidity and rigidity to the plant cell. It acts as storage sacs of cell and stores food, water, sugar, minerals and waste products of the cell
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