IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES
CROP PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 2 IRRIGATION 3. CROPPING PATTERN
MANURE AND FERTILISERS Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal and plant makes the soil fertile and rich in organic matter. and avoids water logging in clayey soils. o It helps to enrich the soil with essential nutrients and hence o It helps to increase the water holding capacity in sandy soils MANURE VERMI COMPOSTGREEN MANURE COMPOST
e Compost: The material obtained after the decomposition of unused material like livestock excreta, vegetable peels, animal excreta, domestic waste, sewage waste, leftover food, etc. in pits is called compost which is rich in organic matter and nutrients. And the process of making compost is called composting. Vermicompost: When compost is prepared by using earthworms in order to fasten the process of decomposing the plant and animal waste is called vermicompost. Again the process is called vermicomposting Green manure: Some plants like guar are first grown on the cultivating fields and then mulched by ploughing thenm into the soil before sowing the crop seeds in order to replenish the soil with essential like nitrogen and phosphorus. This manure is called green manure
The advantages of using manure are that they are non- toxic and eco-friendly. Fertilizers refer to the products produced commercially to replenish the soil with essential nutrients. The fertilizers enrich the soil with nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium and ensure proper vegetative growth of healthy But continuous use of fertilizers can destroy the fertility of soil as it harms the beneficial micro- organisms in the soil
Organic Farming e Organic farming is a method of farming using or no amount of fertilizers, herbicides, less pesticides etc. This method uses only organic matters like organic manures, farm-wastes. It uses blue green algae in preparation of bio fertilizers Neem leaves, turmeric are used as bio-pesticides to store grain.
IRRIGATION The process of watering plants to ensure that crops get enough quantity of water at proper phase during their growing season to increase the expected yields of any crop is called irrigation. Wells: In a dug well, water is collected from water bearing strata. Tube wells can tap water from the deeper strata. Water is then lifted up using pumps from these well to water the plants
Canals: They receive water from one or more reservoirs or from rivers. The main canal is divided into branch canals having further distributaries to irrigate fields. River Lift Systems: This system is more useful in areas having insufficient or irregular canal flow as a result of inadequate reservoir release. Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs intercepting and storing the run-off of smaller catchment
CROPPING PATTERNS e There are two different categories of cropping pattern o 1. Mixed cropping: This approach of growing crops involves growing two or more crops concurrently on the same land. It involves giving away some insurance against failure of one of the crops. For example, wheat and gram, wheat and mustard, sunflower and ground nut, etc. 9 2. Inter-cropping: This approach of growing crops involves growing two or more crops concurrently on the same land in a certain pattern. The crops are grown depending upon their varied nutritional requirements such that each row contain definite crops and different from the adjacent rows to ensure maximum utilization of the nutrients present in the soil. This approach also prevents the attack of pests and spread of diseases. For example, maize and soyabean, bajra and lobea, etc
Currently pursuing my engineeering in Biotechnology, in B.M.S college of Engineering. Dancing & Reading keeps me alive.