IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES
e Any edible substance of plant or animal origin that provides nutritional benefits such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals to an organism when consumed is called Food. o A meal that includes adequate amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals is called Balanced diet. A balanced diet should contain pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk, iron-rich food, and other nutrient rich food in requisite proportions.
9 The reasons for need of improvement of food production: Meet the needs of growing population: The food items are grown in fields by the farmers. The demand of food is increasing with increasing population. Therefore it is necessary that the yield of crop also increases. Less scope of increasing the area of land under cultivation Not all the lands around us are available for agricultural purposes. Many of them are used for residential purposes, building schools, colleges hospitals, shopping malls and many uses other than agriculture. Therefore we need to increase the crop production using modern technologies and techniques. But at the same time we should take care that there should not be any harm to the environment. People are suffering from malnutrition: Producing more and more crops will not solve the problem of malnutrition. The produced crops should be accessible to all. Therefore, along with increased crop production there should be good economic conditions to ensure affordability
IMPROVEMENT IN CROP YIELDS Different climatic conditions including temperature and photoperiods favour the growth of different crops.
ZAID CROPS o This condition also ensures the completion of their life cycle. Crops can be broadly categorized into three types: The type of crops grown from the month of March KHARIF CROPS to June is called Zayed crops. The types of crops grown in rainy season from the month of June to October are called Kharif crops. For example, Paddy, soya bean, pigeon pea, maize, cotton, green gram and black gram. RABI CROPS The types of crops grown in winter season from the month of November to April are called Rabi crops. For example, wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed.
. In order to meet the growing demand of food with increasing population the improvement in crop yield is necessary. The practices involved in farming can be divided into three distinct stages 1 Choice of seeds for planting. 2. Nurturing of the crop plants. . Protection of the growing and harvested crops from loss.
o Activities involved in improvement of crop yield are as follows: 1 Crop variety improvement 2. Crop production improvement a. Crop protection management.
CROP IMPROVEMENT VARIETY o Crop variety can be improved by utilizing following methods: o Finding a good yield crop o Hybridization: The process of interbreeding between genetically divergent plants. HYBRIDISATION INTERV ARIETAL INTERSPECIFIC INTERGENERIC Between two different species of same genus Between different genera Between different varieties
e Introducing a gene to genetically modify the crops by providing desired characteristics to the crops. Good quality seeds must be provided to the farmers. Taking care to prevent the biotic factors(diseases, insects and nematodes) and abiotic factors (drought, salinity, waterlogging, heat, cold and frost) that can affect the crop growth. e Shorter maturity of the crops results in more economical variety. Attempts must be taken to ensure higher yield.
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