CLASS IX NCERT SCIENCE Chapter 5 Fundamental Unit of Life : Cell
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Cytoplasm Fluid content between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. cytoplasm contains specialized cell organelles. Act as medium for chemical reaction to occur.
Nucleus Large centrally located spherical cellular component. Bounded by 2 nuclear membrane forming a nuclear envelope Nuclear envelope separates nucleus from the cytoplasm. It contains various pores called nuclear pores and encloses liquid ground substance nucleoplasm.
Structure of Nucleus Chromatin Nuclear membrane Nucleolus- Nuclear pore Nucleoplasnm
Conti... Within nucleoplasm we have two kind of structures Nucleolus. Chromatin material.
Nuclear Envelope Nuclear Pores Nucleolus- Chromatin
Nucleolus Rich in protein and RNA molecules. Act as site for ribosome synthesis. Also known as factory of ribosomes. Ribosome help in protein synthesis.
Chromosomes Rod shaped structure only visible when the cell is about to divide. contain information for inheritance of features from parents to next generation in form of DNA ( deoxyribo nucleic acid) chromosomes contain 2 components- a) DNA b) proteins
cell chromosome nucleus DNA gene
Functions Controls all the metabolic activities of cell. Regulates cell cycle. It is concerned with the transmission of hereditary traits from parents to offspring
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum RER looks rough under a microscope because it has particles called ribosomes attached to its surface. The ribosomes, which are present in all active cells, are the sites of protein manufacture. The manufactured proteins are then sent to various places in the cell depending on need, using the ER.
Membrane Biogenesis some proteins and lipids help in building the cell membrane some other function as enzymes or hormones.
Functions ER serve as channels for the transport of materials between various regions of the cytoplasm or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The ER functions as a cytoplasmic framework providing a surface for some biochemical activities. SER plays a crucial role in detoxifying many poisons and drugs.
Golgi Apparatus First described by Camillo Golgi. consists of a system of membrane-bound vesicles approximately parallel to each other in stacks. These stacks are called cisterns. These membranes often have connections with the membranes of ER.
Suicide bags During the disturbance in cellular metabolism, when the cell gets damaged, lysosomes may burst and the enzymes digest their own cell Therefore, lysosomes are also known as suicide bags. They are also known as scavengers and cellular housekeepers. Lysosomes are membrane-bound sacs filled with digestive enzymes These enzymes are made by RER.
endoplasmic reticulum nucleus chloroplast ribosome mtochondria cell wall cytoplasm vacuole golgi complex cell membrane Vacuoles
Functions Vacuoles help to maintain the osmotic pressure in a cell. They store toxic metabolic by-products or end products of plant cells. They provide turgidity and rigidity and to the plant cells.
Powerhouse of Cell Known as powerhouse of the cell. Energy required for various chemical activities needed for life is released by mitochondria in form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) molecules. Known as energy currency of the cell. pnocdhanies A wofor. making chemical compounds and for mechanical work.
Types of plastids chromoplasts-colored plastids (except green color) chloroplasts-Green-colored plastids. Leu coplasts-The colorless plastids.
Chloroplasts Chromoplasts 1. They are green plastids. 1. They are non green colored plastids. 2. They contain chlorophyll and 2. Chlorophyll absent and only carotenoids carotenoids present. 3. Site of photosynthesis. 3. Add color to organs for attracting animals to perform pollination
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