CLASS IX NCERT SCIENCE Chapter 5 Fundamental Unit of Life : Cell
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S.No Animal cell Plant cell 1. Animal cells are generally small in Plant cells are larger than animal cells. 2. Cell wall is absent. 3. Except the protozoan Euglena no Plastids are present. size. The plasma membrane of plant cells is surrounded by a rigid cell wall of cellulose. animal cell possesses plastids. 4. Vacuoles in animal cells are many Most mature plant cells have a large central and small sap vacuole. 5Animal cals haveainge hiy Pant cals have many simpler unis of amd complex Golgi prominent Golgi apparatus. apparatus, called dictyosomes. Animal cells have centrosome and Plant cells lack centrosome and centrioles centrioles
Plant cell Animal cell Rough endoplasmic reticuum Golg apparatu Pla ma membrane Smoothh endoplasmic reticulum to show thylakoids) Centriole Smooth endoplasm reticulum Nucleus o Golgi Oapparatus Lysosome Nuclear envelope uclear Mitochondrion jacent cell wall Cell wall Mitoe asmic reticulum Nucleus Cytoplasm Chloroplast
What are living beings made up of ???? Living organisms are made up of microscopic units called cells Basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. Discovered by Robert Hooke.
Cellular level - Most important and fundamental level in the organization of living world Cell biology Study of cells in al aspects of structure and functions. Anton von Leeuwenhoek made an improved microscope and using this microscope he discovered free living cells in pond water.
Cells of an onion peel
Classification Based on the no. of cells - Organism:s Unicellular Multicellular
Characteristics Multicellular organisms Consists of large number of cells. Cells are specified to perform different functions. Different cells perform different specific functions. Specialised cell only take part in reproduction Long. Plants, Animals. Unicellular organisms Cell Number Contains only a single cell. Division of labor No division of labor. Functions All the activities are performed by a single cell. Involves same single cell Reproduction Life span Short. Example Amoeba, Yeast.
Discovery Of Cell Discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. observed cell in a cork slice with the help of primitive microscope. Cork is a substance which comes from bark of a tree.
Other Discoveries Anton von Leeuwenhoek made an improved microscope and using this microscope he discovered free living cells in pond water. Robert Brown discovered nucleus in the cell. Purkinje in 1839 coined the term 'protoplasm' for the fluid substance of the cell. Haeckel established that the nucleus was responsible for storing and transmitting hereditary characters.
To prepare stained temporary mount of onion peel Procedure Cell wal ell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm
AMOEBA Nerve Cell PHAGOSOMES ESCAPED BACTERIUM Nucleus Nerve Axon Amoeba Cell membrane Cytoplasm
Cell shape-variable. NERVE CELL MUSCLE CELLS BONE CELL Striated (voluntary) Smooth (involuntary) ardiac Ovum GLAND CELLS BLOOD CELLS White blood cells Red blood cells Lymphocyte Monocyte REPRODUCTIVE CELLS Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil
O Cell size- a) Different for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. b) Mycoplasma gallicepticum smallest cell known c) Ostrich eggs largest cell known. DNA Membrane 008 OYO 0 00.0 Ribosome Mycoplasma Ostrich Egg
EUKARYOTE PROKARYOTE Nucleolis Mitochondria Nucleoid Capsule Nucleus Flagellum Cell Wall Ribosomes Cell Membrane smic Reticulum
Structure of Cell Cytoplasm Nuclear membrane Nucleus Cell membrane Ribosomes
Plasma Membrane outer boundary of cell is Plasma membrane or cell membrane. separates the contents of the cell from external environment. Plasma membrane is a living , thin , delicate , elastic, selectively permeable membrane. Allow or permits the entry or exit of some materials.
How the movement occurS??? Process of diffusion. Spontaneous movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration. Carbon dioxide and oxygen move across cell membrane through diffusion.
Diffusion in Cells Diffusion is an important way by which oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of cells food and oxygen diffuse in carbon dioxide and waste products diffuse out An amoeba
Low solute concentration number of water molecules = 24 number of solute molecules = 0 High solute concentration number of water molecules 24 number of solute molecules = 5 number of free water molecules = 24 | number of free water molecules 4 net movement of water molecules
Hypertonic Solution If the medium has a lower concentration of water than the cell The cell will lose water by osmosis. The cell will shrink.
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