NTA UGC NET Paper - 1
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Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the united States by applying new social research findings on the experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of preindustrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New world was simply a 'natural spillover Although- at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the English-they would rather have stayed home-by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they regarded it as the land of opportunity
Secondly, Bailym holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical New world community. e.g., the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied considerably. Bailyn's third proposition suggests two general patterns prevailing among the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants, another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social character of people who came to preindustrial North America. At first, thousands of unskilled labourers were recruited; by the 1730's. However, American employers demanded skilled artisans.
Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of the European culture system' He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built a distinguished university and published books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England puritans had powerful effects on North American culture.
Although, Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with the political development of the united states. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic
Q. 1. consider the following statements about migrants to colonial North America 1. Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans. 2. A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land. 3. By the 1730's, migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by American employers than were unskilled labourers. 4. A significant percentage of migrants who came to the colonies to acquire land were forced to work as field hands for prosperous American farmers. Which of the above statements are supported by information given in the passage? (a) 1, 3 and 4 (c) Only 3 (b) 2 and 3 (d) Only 2
Q. 2. This question consists of an Assertion (A) and a Reason (R). Indicate your answer by selecting the correct alternation. Assertion (A): The author's evaluation of Bailyn's fourth proposition is that it is partially correct. Reason (R): Although the colonies were part of an anglo-American empire, Bailyn devalues the achievements of colonial culture by splitting the empire into an English core and colonial periphery. (a) Both A and R are right and R is the correct explanation for A (b) Both A and R are right but R is not the correct explanation for A (c) A is right but R is wrong (d) A is wrong but R is right
Q. 3. consider the following statements regarding Bailyn in the passage 1. He failed to investigate the lives of Europeans before they came to colonial North America to determine more adequately their motivations for migrating. 2. He failed to relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that eventually shaped the character of the United States. 3. He failed to give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and England. 4. He failed to take advantage of social research on the experience of colonists who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land. Which of the above statements are not mentioned in the passage? (a) Only 3 (c) 1 and 4 (b) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 3 and 4
Q. 4. Consider the following statements regarding English migrants to the colonies during the eighteenth century 1. Most of them were farmers rather than trades people or artisans. 2. They expected that the colonies would offer them increased opportunity. 3. They were generally not as educated as the people who remained in England. 4. They differed from other English people in that they were willing to travel. Which of the above statements are not mentioned in the passage? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 3 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) Only 3
Q. 5. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (a) suggesting that new social research on migration should lead to revisions in current interpretations of early American history (b) providing the theoretical framework that is used by most historians in understanding early American history (c) refuting an argument about early American history that has been proposed by social historians. (d) discussing a reinterpretation of early American history that is based on new social research on migration,
Q. 5. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (a) suggesting that new social research on migration should lead to revisions in current interpretations of early American history (b) providing the theoretical framework that is used by most historians in understanding early American history (c) refuting an argument about early American history that has been proposed by social historians. (d) discussing a reinterpretation of early American history that is based on new social research on migration.
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