Course :- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 3:- Problems and Solutions - Land Holdings and Irrigation Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
1. Land Holding . From Historical Sense we have tried to make amends by enancting LAND REFORM LAWS. Agrarian Reform Committee by J C Kumarappa. 1) Abolition of the Intermediaries, 2) Tenancy Reforms, 3) Ceiling on landholdings, 4) Consolidation of holdings 5) Compilation and updating of land records Except for Kerala and West Bengal, Nothing really worked.
Reality check - UNVIABLE LAND HOLDING Land Holding % of House holds % of Land hold The bottom half of rural house Land less 11.24 Sub-margin holdings (0.01 0.99 acres) hold owns iust 3 % of Land " Top 10 % has 54 % Land . FLAWED FLAWED FLAWED !! 40.11 3.80 Marginal holdings (1.00 2.49 acres) 20.52 13.13 Small holdings (2.50 4.99 acres) 13.42 18.59 Medium holdings (5 14.99 acres) 12.09 37.81 Large holdings (15 acres above) 2.62 26.67
Solutions as suggest by MSS Distribute ceiling-surplus and waste lands; Prevent diversion of prime agricultural land and forest to corporate secfor tor non-agriculfUral purposes. Ensure grazing rights and seasonal access to forests to tribals and pasforalists, and access to common properfy resources. Establish a National Land Use Advisory Service, which would have the capacity to link land use decisions with ecological meteprological and marketing factors on a location and season specific baSIS .Set up a mechanism to regulate the ale of agricultural land. based on quanfum of land, nafure of proposed use and cafegory of buyer.
Government Scheme T Haque Committee Report of Model Land Leasing Agreemmt BackGround:- Kerala, JnK and Manipur No Leasing of agri land WB and AP allow share cropping. . GJ and MH - SC/ST tenants cant be evicted . MP, BH Land can be leased by Widows and Handicapped Problems :- No Security Hence tenants are too afraid to invest. Owner afraid of giving away land instead keeping it fallow . No optimal utilization of Land. Access to credit.
Recommendation of Act This model act proposes to legalize land leasing to promote agricultural efficiency, equity and poverty reduction. Ownership Security for owners and Security of tenure for tenants. Allow automatic resumption of land after the agreed lease period without requiring minimum area to be left to tenant. .Facilitate all tenants including share cropper access to insurance bank credit and bank credit against pledging expected output .Incentivize tenant to make investment in land and entitle them to get back unused value of investment at time of termination
2. Irrigation Irrigation in India State of Indian Agriculture 2015-16, India has a net sown area of around 140 million hectares (2012-13) of which around 66.10 million (around 47%) is under Irrigation 24% 16% 3% 46% . Which means 53% rainfed. :car alswells : Tube We Tanks Other Wells Other Sources
The report recommends: . A comprehensive set of reforms to enable farmers to have sustained and equitable access to water. . Increase water supply through rainwater harvesting and recharge of the aquifer should become mandatory. "Million Wells Recharge" programme, specifically targeted at private wells should be launched Substantial increase in investment in irrigation sector under the 11th Five Year Plan apportioned between large surface water systems; minor irrigation and new schemes for groundwater recharge.
Government Scheme - PMKSY . We had several schemes earlier - like ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFIT PROGRAM, INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME, FARM WATER MGMT. Earlier LAUNCHED under Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers's Welfare then in 2016 it was changed to WATER RESOURCES MIN
Objectives Eogyeron dnvesfments in imigation @Farm level and provide .HAR KHET KO PANI Integration of Source disbn, efficient use of water thru appropriate tech . Enhance adoption of precision irrigation and other water saving technologies under more crop per drop Promotion of micro irrigation in form of drops, sprinklers, pivots, rain guns in farm JAL SINCHAN . Enhance recharge of aquifers promote sustainable water res. I-Enhance the physical acces to farm
Some more details Project mode with District Irigation plans .75 :25 funding scheme between Centre and States. In special category status States :- 90: 10 Bigger question about the idea of TIED FUNDS.
Course :- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 4:- Problems and Solutions Productivity Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Pathways to productivity - ES2016 Irrigation :- Already Discussed . Mechanization :- Rural to Urban Migration, Feminization . Mechanization less than 50% Tractor Rentals . Quality of Seeds :-Accounts to 20-25% of Productivity Affordability :- High Yield Seeds depends on the market Availability: Shortage of seeds, Certified seeds alone wont solve problems . We need more Private competition in Market. Research: BioTechnology and Genetic Engineering
MSS Recommendations Substantial increase in public investment in agriculture related infrastructure particularly in irrigation, drainage, land development, water conservation, research development and road connectivity etc. . A national network of advanced soil testing laboratories with facilities for detection of micronutrient deficiencies .Promotion of conservation farming, which will help farm families to conserve and improve soil health, water quantity and quality and biodiversity.
Farmer Suicides Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra remains to be the hot spots of Farmer suicides. .Has been a crucial item issue in contemporary India. Reason behind suicides - DEBT Traps!!! Lack of marketable surplus produce b'coz of small landholding, lack of irrigation, high yielding seeds and other inputs, lack of coaching . Lack of remunerative prices (because of issues in APMC, MSP and transport- . Lack of financial inclusion and financial planning. (Because even after extension service) on best farming practices storage infrastructure good monsoon and good harvest, money may get wasted on social events and pilgrimage, if not saved and invested properly.)
How is that government is trying to deal with this? Loan Waivers Dangerous, many economist oppose to this. . Bad culture and examples been set. Against the farmer who pay loans regularly. Increases the Fiscal deficit of the government. . NPAs increasing and future loans seen with suspicion. . It is only for rich farmer, poor farmer still avail un-institutionalized farmers who charge high rate of interest.
The PUNJAB Experience - FISHY !!! In PB 1 crore acres of cultivated land and the short-term credit required per season at the recommended rate of Rs. 22,000 per acre . On this base, it is estimated that Rs. 22,000 crore is needed, whereas the crop loans outstanding of all banks were around 63,000 crore While there are around 20 lakh farmers in the state, all banks together have issued 40 lakh Kisan Credit Cards. Farmers would need money for other purposes like education of children etc, but that doesn't justify disproportionate agricultural loans
Recommendation from MSS . Expand the outreach of the formal credit system to reach the really poor and needy. . Moratorium on debt recovery, including loans from non-institutional sources, and waiver of . Establish an Agriculture Risk Fund to provide relief to farmers in the aftermath of successive Reduce rate of interest for crop loans to 4 per cent simple, with government support. interest on loans in distress hotspots and during calamities, till capability is restored. natural calamities. .Issue Kisan Credit Cards to women farmers, with joint pattas as collateral .Develop an integrated credit-cum-crop-livestock-human health insurance package. .Expand crop insurance cover to cover the entire country and all crops, with reduced premiums and create a Rural Insurance Development Fund to tak up development work for spreading rural insurance . Promote sustainable livelihoods for the poor by improving (i) Finan ial services (ii) Infrastructure ii) Investments in human developmenf, agriculture and business developmenf services including.productivity enhancement, loc l value addition, and alternate market linkages) and iv) Institufional devel pment services (forming and strengthening producers' organisations such as'self-help groups and water user associations)
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana Comprehensive converage insurance against crop loss. . Compulsory for people opting for crop loans for notified crops in notified area and voluntary for non loanee. No upper limit on government subsidy. Losses covered include Non preventables like natural fire, storm, hailstorms, cyclones. Cluster approach of group of districts to accertain the risk profile. . Use of Remote sensing, Smart Phone, Drone for quick estimation. . Premium rate Rabi (1.5%), Kharif (2%) and Horticulture (5%)