Course:- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 1 :- Overview Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
"Most of the world's poor people earn their living from agriculture, so if we knew the economics of agriculture, we Would know much of the economics of being poor." Theodore Schultz
Hello!! I am Nithin Kunneparambil Appeared CSE interview once and gave mains thricee 40.8 K Followers on UnAcademy !!! Scholastic Profile :- IIT Kharagpur, CUSAT, IGNOU Nithin Kunneparambil My Courses (11 Courses) Gave CSE interview in 2016, First attempt - Crash Course on Modern Indian History 7,033 Views in last 30 days 609,706 Lifetime Views Elaborate course on Modern Indian History Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Kingdom and Vijayanagara Comprehensive understanding of Mughals - Music of India UNESCO World Heritage Sites. 11 Courses 40.8k Followers12 Fllowing
My Upcoming Course UNACADEMY PLUS . 16 Sessions of 1.5 Hours Month of January Integrated Approach with Ancient and Medieval India. Integrated Course on Art and Culture of India Coverage of Current affairs relating to Art and Culture. O Last date to apply is 28th December View Details
Current relevance !! . Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sangharsh Samanvay Samiti!! Kisan Mukti March on 29th and 30th of November 2018. Issues regarding plight of farmers. This calls for a detailed understanding of what is been happening in our country Farmer Suicide, Sectoral Composition issues, Lack of Lewisian Transformation in the Economy, Election year.
Whom is this Course for? UPSC CSE Aspirants. . Any one who wants to understands to issues of farmers in our Country.
How do we map it to Syllabus GS 2 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States, Issues relating to poverty and hunger, . GS 1., poverty and developmental issue,... GS 3 :.., Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers,... GS 4 :- Case Study regarding diffusing tensions in Agrarian reforms.
Topics Covered in this Course Demand of Farmer Association Historical Perspective . Some useful data. . M S Swaminathan Committee recommendation Issue of Farmers . Backward Issues: ICAR, Irrigation, Fragmented Land Holding, Credit Issues, Fertilizers, Dryland, Feminizafion, Organic Farming, Evergreen Revolution, . Forward Issues:- APMC reforms, eNAM, Food Processing . Other Miscellaneous issues :- Farmer Suicides, indebtedness, climate change and Farming, WTo issues . Pathways to Productivity . Government Schemes !!
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Course :- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 2 :- Evaluating Mukti March and Current Situations and Demands Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
So, what is Happening in Delhi ? In March, 2018 We had LONG KISAN MARCH . Now, we have KISAN MUKTI MARCH Serious issues regarding farmer's welfare.
The key difference between the marches Difference Participation Demand Long March Farmers Alone Farm Loan Waiver Mukti March Farmers+ Supporters Parliament Sessions and Discussion on MSS report AIKSCC Delhi against Union Coordination AIKS Place Bombay against MH Govt Nation for farmers are a unique grouping which speaks about justice for farmers. Very contrary to the Marxian Analysis of Class collaboration Vs Class struggle. .
History of Agriculture in India The colonial system had broken the back bone of Indian Agriculture and the fine balance between primary and secondary sectors Commercialization of Agriculture Free market theories and Famines. . Faulty oppressive Land Revenue collection like Zamindaris S/M Delndustrialization leading to DeUrbanization leading to Ruralization leading to Peasantization. (EXCESS LABOUR IN THE AGRI MARKET) This mammoth scale disaster is what we have been trying to undo since independence
What is the problem as perceived by Farmers .The issues of farmers as per Problem of Farmers as per Survey their own understanding are Flood/Drought .Low Productivity . Irrigation . Low Income Institutional .Low farm price Labour Issues .Inflation .Depressed Economy 13 8 Low productivity Irrigati u Institutional s Low Income a Labour Issue Low farm Price sdepressed economy inflation others
Disaggregated data Region North East Central South West First Major Labour Issues Irrigation Irrigation Low Productivity Low Productivity Second major Low Productivity Flood/Drought Labour issues Depressed Economy Low Income Third Major Low Income Low Productivity Inflation Inflation Flood/Drought
Course :- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 3:- Problems and Solutions - Land Holdings and Irrigation Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
1. Land Holding . From Historical Sense we have tried to make amends by enancting LAND REFORM LAWS. Agrarian Reform Committee by J C Kumarappa. 1) Abolition of the Intermediaries, 2) Tenancy Reforms, 3) Ceiling on landholdings, 4) Consolidation of holdings 5) Compilation and updating of land records Except for Kerala and West Bengal, Nothing really worked.
Reality check - UNVIABLE LAND HOLDING Land Holding % of House holds % of Land hold The bottom half of rural house Land less 11.24 Sub-margin holdings (0.01 0.99 acres) hold owns iust 3 % of Land " Top 10 % has 54 % Land . FLAWED FLAWED FLAWED !! 40.11 3.80 Marginal holdings (1.00 2.49 acres) 20.52 13.13 Small holdings (2.50 4.99 acres) 13.42 18.59 Medium holdings (5 14.99 acres) 12.09 37.81 Large holdings (15 acres above) 2.62 26.67
Recommendation of Act This model act proposes to legalize land leasing to promote agricultural efficiency, equity and poverty reduction. Ownership Security for owners and Security of tenure for tenants. Allow automatic resumption of land after the agreed lease period without requiring minimum area to be left to tenant. .Facilitate all tenants including share cropper access to insurance bank credit and bank credit against pledging expected output .Incentivize tenant to make investment in land and entitle them to get back unused value of investment at time of termination
2. Irrigation Irrigation in India State of Indian Agriculture 2015-16, India has a net sown area of around 140 million hectares (2012-13) of which around 66.10 million (around 47%) is under Irrigation 24% 16% 3% 46% . Which means 53% rainfed. :car alswells : Tube We Tanks Other Wells Other Sources
The report recommends: . A comprehensive set of reforms to enable farmers to have sustained and equitable access to water. . Increase water supply through rainwater harvesting and recharge of the aquifer should become mandatory. "Million Wells Recharge" programme, specifically targeted at private wells should be launched Substantial increase in investment in irrigation sector under the 11th Five Year Plan apportioned between large surface water systems; minor irrigation and new schemes for groundwater recharge.
Objectives Eogyeron dnvesfments in imigation @Farm level and provide .HAR KHET KO PANI Integration of Source disbn, efficient use of water thru appropriate tech . Enhance adoption of precision irrigation and other water saving technologies under more crop per drop Promotion of micro irrigation in form of drops, sprinklers, pivots, rain guns in farm JAL SINCHAN . Enhance recharge of aquifers promote sustainable water res. I-Enhance the physical acces to farm
Some more details Project mode with District Irigation plans .75 :25 funding scheme between Centre and States. In special category status States :- 90: 10 Bigger question about the idea of TIED FUNDS.
Course :- Holistic Coverage of Kisan Issues Lesson 4:- Problems and Solutions Productivity Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Per Hectare Productivit Crop MaizeGroundnut Sugarcane 1667 4880 Paddy 2929 6321 6414 6622 4261 Wheat 2583 3969 India China Japan SA Indonesia Canada Vietnam 913 2799 2336 3038 1523 68012 85294 2872 8398 2646 7974 4313 80787 2591 3845 2711 1336 65689
Agriculture extension services Timely advisory to farmers to adopt best practices, technology, market info etc. . Some techniques like KVK, ISRO e Centres, Mobile Apps, KISAN TV etc.
MSS Recommendations Substantial increase in public investment in agriculture related infrastructure particularly in irrigation, drainage, land development, water conservation, research development and road connectivity etc. . A national network of advanced soil testing laboratories with facilities for detection of micronutrient deficiencies .Promotion of conservation farming, which will help farm families to conserve and improve soil health, water quantity and quality and biodiversity.
How is that government is trying to deal with this? Loan Waivers Dangerous, many economist oppose to this. . Bad culture and examples been set. Against the farmer who pay loans regularly. Increases the Fiscal deficit of the government. . NPAs increasing and future loans seen with suspicion. . It is only for rich farmer, poor farmer still avail un-institutionalized farmers who charge high rate of interest.
The PUNJAB Experience - FISHY !!! In PB 1 crore acres of cultivated land and the short-term credit required per season at the recommended rate of Rs. 22,000 per acre . On this base, it is estimated that Rs. 22,000 crore is needed, whereas the crop loans outstanding of all banks were around 63,000 crore While there are around 20 lakh farmers in the state, all banks together have issued 40 lakh Kisan Credit Cards. Farmers would need money for other purposes like education of children etc, but that doesn't justify disproportionate agricultural loans
Big Question 1. Can loan waiver be a solution for agricultural stress? a) Long run this definitely bad. b) But as Keynes said "In long run we are all dead" c) The idea is to provide immediate relief you need these. d) Democratic process ensures this. 2. TAXING AGRICULTURAL INCOME? Discuss please !!
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana Comprehensive converage insurance against crop loss. . Compulsory for people opting for crop loans for notified crops in notified area and voluntary for non loanee. No upper limit on government subsidy. Losses covered include Non preventables like natural fire, storm, hailstorms, cyclones. Cluster approach of group of districts to accertain the risk profile. . Use of Remote sensing, Smart Phone, Drone for quick estimation. . Premium rate Rabi (1.5%), Kharif (2%) and Horticulture (5%)
Evaluation of PMFBY -Target to get 50% of gross cropped area under this, but currently it is 30%, some states like UP it is just 20% . Kharif 2016 :- Premium Paid :- 14,400 Cr, Claims : - 9797 Crores, Payouts :-9306 Cr. Which means 95% met -Rabi 201 6-17-59% claim payouts . Kharif 2017-5% UTTER Failure !!! . REASONS:- States not contributing their parts.