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Lesson 4 ATP Energy currency ch Dr. P. K. Agrawal M.Sc, Ph.D., CSIR NET (JRF), SRF, GATE, FIAZ Youtube Channel with over 1 million views 20 Years of Pre-medical teaching experience Ex- Faculty, Allen Career Institute, Kota Visitfollowing link to follow my profile https://unacademy.com/user/biologybypkagrawal-6909
ATP is the energy currency of the cell . The energy produced by the cell gets stored in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) . ATP is called energy currency of the cell. This is because, energy is volatile. So, body stores it in the form of radially available source .i.e., ATP . ATP on demand can give energy to body cells for their . ATP is also used by the body for transferring a . ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann and functions phosphate group to a substrate. Jendrassik. ATP Molecule ATP production takes place in side the mitochondria at Fo Fi particles (Oxysomes). This process of formation of ATP during the oxidation of food is called oxidative phosphorylation.
Structure of ATP High energy bonds ATP consists of a molecule of adenosine Adeninee Base (adenine ribose) with three phosphate P groups attached to it. . If one phosphate is removed, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is produced. Similarly if two phosphates are removed, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is formed Pentose sugar An ATP contains only two high energy phosphate bonds NH2 The standard free energy of hydrolysis of , is approximately -7300 cal/mol for each phosphate group. HO- - - - -P--a Because of this large energy, ATP is called a high-energy phosphate compound OH OH
ATP Cycle ATP According to Fritz Lipmann, There is an alternation between ATP and ADP inside the cells. Energy Utilization Anaboism Muscle contraction Active transport Energy production When free energy is available, ADP along with iP produces ATP (Endothermic reaction). On the other hand when body needs energy, ATP undergoes breakage to form ADP and iP, releasing energy (exothermic reaction). This is referred to as ATP cycle. ADP+ iP ATP Muscle movement Metabolism Cellular activities Food Energy Energy ADP +iP
(respiration) Similarly, free energy can be demanded by body for various functions such as muscular movements, impulse conduction, metabolism and cellular functions. ATP is able to act as a donor of high-energy phosphate to form compounds with high energy potentials. These include Phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose 5 phosphate, 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate etc Similarly, ADP can accept high-energy phosphate to form ATP from those compounds. .So, ATP is also used in cells as a coenzyme, working along with phosphate transferase enzymes
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