Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Disasters and Disaster Management Presented By Roman Saini
Course Structure B. DM in India 1 Challenges in DM 2. DM Act 2005,NDMA C. Disaster Management 1. DM Framework 2. Phases of DM 3. Pre-Disaster A. Introduction 1. Previous Year Questions Trend Introduction to Disaster Phenomena Guidelines 2010 DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM 4. Emergency Response National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Disasters in India during the year 2017 2. 3. 4. 5. management- Phase 1 System-Phase 2 Rehabilitation-Phase 3 India 3. Disaster in i.Earthquakes ii. Cyclone li. I sunam v.Floods v.Droughts vi.Landslide 5. Recovery-Relief & 6. Community Based DM 7. Use of Science & 6. Technology in DM vii.Avalanches viii. Industrial Disaster ix.Epidemic 7.
5. Post Disaster Management While emergency response is vital as it is aimed at saving human lives and providing relief, the ultimate objective of any disaster management is restoration of devastated livelihoods. The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) defines recovery as the "decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk". This restoration should not only encompass social, economic and psychological rehabilitation, but go beyond by addressing the underlying cause of disaster. Recovery efforts following rescue and relief in any disaster, can be classified into short term and long term. The short term activities for recovery are debris clearance, providing semi-permanent shelter and ensuring sanitation and restoring lifelines, while the long term activities involve building a safer and more sustainable livelihood
The first step after stabilizing the situation by providing sufficient relief is to assess the damage. Each major disaster is followed by an assessment exercise. A meticulously executed assessment exercise would provide an ideal base for the rehabilitation efforts. Based on the assessment of the damage and the needs, a recovery strategy has to be formulated The strategy should include all interventions economic, social, political and psychological. The resources should be identified and the roles and responsibilities of all concerned should be defined. Recovery activities are taken up by government agencies, local bodies, international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and others, through separate, overlapping and uncoordinated interventions The role of Voluntary Organisations including international ones like the Red Cross is extremely useful for downscaling the impact of disaster. Voluntary Organisations are often better equipped to handle some aspects of accident relief and post-disaster rehabilitation. The recovery plan should incorporate measures to reduce vulnerability by building community resilience.
How can communities build resilience for disaster risk reduction? Disaster risk reduction can be effective if the communities feel that their needs are being met and participate in it. The community is also a repository of knowledge and skills which have evolved traditionally and these need to be integrated in the risk reduction process. It is necessary to educate the community about the entire disaster risk reduction and even to impart skills and assign specific roles to the members of the community, so that the first response from the community is a well coordinated one. This could be achieved by: Undertaking location specific training programmes for the community: Mainstreaming crisis management in education: Mainstreaming crisis management in training programmes
However, after the recovery phase, a more comprehensive assessment of all aspects of disaster management is required. It is necessary to conduct a detailed evaluation of all aspects of crisis management. This should bring out the strengths and weaknesses of the disaster management machinery and also provide the basis for future improvements. The post-disaster recovery phase provides a 'window of opportunity' for disaster risk reduction and risk reduction aspects should therefore be built into the redevelopment process Recovery an Opportunity Disaster can become a development opportunity if relief efforts do not merely restore the poor status quo ante, but rather put people on a path to sustainable development. The goal in the transition phase must be to avoid a circularity of risk.
Guiding Principles for Post-Disaster Recovery Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in the recovery/ development process Improving/maintaining coordination Promoting participatory approaches and decentralized planning and programming for recovery Enhancing safety standards and integrating risk reduction in reconstruction and development Improving the living conditions of the affected communities and sectors Building local and national capacities for increased resilience, risk management and sustainable development -Taking advantage of ongoing initiatives Gender sensibility Demonstrative effects Monitoring, evaluating and learning
Gender Issues And Vulnerability Of Weaker Sections in Disaster Management Women and children are the most adversely affected in disasters, particularly natural disasters, and consequently suffer the most. 1. The basic reason for this situation is the gender disparities which exist in our society because of which women have little say in decision making, particularly outside the household, they are comparatively less literate, have lesser mobility and are dependant on men folk in most matters. 2. 3. Consequently, they are not adequately consulted in the decision making process in the community and have a lesser role in all activities. This disadvantaged situation obviously gets aggravated in crisis situation
As a result, whether it is in disaster preparedness plans or during relief and rescue operations, the special needs and concerns of women including their psychological and physical health and well being are not adequately addressed 4. 5. It is, therefore, necessary that all disaster management policies/plans including disaster preparedness and mitigation relief and rescue operations specially address the vulnerability of both women and children during disasters 6. This would necessitate involving women in all disaster preparedness and mitigation plans. The same principles apply to other vulnerable sections like the children, the elderly and the physically challenged