Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Disasters and Disaster Management Presented By Roman Saini
Course Structure B. DM in India 1 Challenges in DM 2. DM Act 2005,NDMA C. Disaster Management 1. DM Framework 2. Phases of DM 3. Pre-Disaster A. Introduction 1. Previous Year Questions Trend Introduction to Disaster Phenomena Guidelines 2010 DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM 4. Emergency Response National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Disasters in India during the year 2017 2. 3. 4. 5. management- Phase 1 India 3. Disaster in i.Earthquakes ii. Cyclone li. I sunam v.Floods v.Droughts vi.Landslide System-Phase 2 Recovery-Relief & Rehabilitation-Phase 3 Community Based DM Use of Science & Technology in DM 6. 7. 6. vii.Avalanches viii. Industrial Disaster ix.Epidemic 7.
6. Community Based Disaster Management Why is needed Community Based Disaster Management? The aims of CBDM are following: 1. Reduce vulnerabilities and increase capacities of households and communities to withstand damaging effects of disasters 2. Contribute to people's participation and empowerment 3. Enable the vulnerable members of a community to obtain the benefits that they desire 4. Gain from their collective participation in the identification, planning, implementation and risk reduction processes 5. Put communities on the forefront 6. Promote a bottom-up approach working in harmony with the top down approach, to address the challenges and difficulties.
How is useful Community Based Disaster Management? As the communities are the first responders. Community Based Disaster Management plans to safeguard lives, livelihood and property, and involvement of community or people are integral to disaster preparedness. This is because people can: Be sources of useful ideas, such as those based on indigenous and technical knowledge and skills Help adopt technical inputs emanating from outside, in order to assimilate various innovations, which can be more pertinent under local conditions 1. 2. 3. Set an example to others by testing new knowledge, skills, techniques that they have gained, besides institutional interventions formulated by government Increase the possibility of coordinated action to help in mitigating disasters, but also bring them together to address the issue collectively Be more appropriately reflected in development programmes 4. 5.
What are the components of Community Based Disaster Management? Community-based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) incorporate certain important components. These include: 1. Risk assessment and vulnerability analysis 2. Resource analysis and mobilization 3. Warning system and its dissemination 4. Organizing community response mechanisms 5. Construction and maintenance of cyclone/flood shelters 6. Mock exercises and drills 7. Strengthening of community self-help capacities 8. Specification of roles and responsibilities of various functionaries and agencies 9. Formation of disaster management committees for decision making, planning and effective implementation of preparedness activities 10. Review and analysis of past disasters 11 Prediction of disasters in different seasons by drawing seasonality calendars 12 Mapping exercises to identify vulnerable places, resources available and safe places for taking shelter, Setting up of different Disaster Management Teams to perform specific tasks 13.
Role Of NGOs In Disaster Management NGOs play a pertinent role in all phases of disaster management. The NDMA has brought about detailed guidelines on the role of NGOs in disaster management such as: Facilitate formation of and participation in State and District level task forces Advocate for formal and institutionalized engagement, and develop protocols for consultative status with NDMA, Finance Commission, National Executive Committee, SDMA, State Planning Boards, State Executive Committees and sch other bodies, ncluding nodal ministries/departments/agencies, on mainstreaming disaster management concerns Initiate appropriate mechanisms for mainstreaming DM concerns with corporate, financial and insurance bodies, professional associations, academic bodies, media and such other networks/ Associations 1. 2. 3. 4. Establish community level coordination mechanisms. 5. Assist in developing and participating in GO-NGO Inter-Agency Coordination Mechanisms 6. Participate in NDMA's NGO Advisory Committee 7. Encourage Contingency Planning at community levels 8. Assist in development, piloting, validation and updating of the district level contingency and preparedness plan 9. Promote and support national projects on risk mitigation
7. Use of Technology Early Warning Systems The objective of an early warning system is to alert the community of any impending hazard so that they can take preventive measures An early warning system basically has four components- 1. Capturing the precursor events, 2. Transmission of this data to a central processing facility, 3. Alert recognition of an impending crisis and 4 Warning dissemination Sensing the precursor Processing of data. Alert recognition of an impending crisis Transmission of raw data Dissemination of warning
Capturing the precursor events is generally a technology driven process for most disasters. Transmission of this data to the central processing facility is also totally technology based. Alerts are generated based on data analysis. Sometimes, alert generation may take some time, as a decision making process may be involved. The dissemination of warning to the vulnerable sections again has both technology and human elements Thus, the early warning phase of disaster management is largely technology driven with satellite imagery, remote sensing, seismology, oceanography, climatology etc providing vital inputs. But like most technologies there are last mile problems which make human intervention essential. It is important that the warning reaches the most vulnerable sections in a manner that is understood by thenm Therefore, in spite of far reaching technological advances, mechanisms still have to be put in place to suit the local conditions. And without the total involvement and awareness of the local community, the last mile issue cannot be addressed or resolved.
India Disaster Resource Network The India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) was initiated by Ministry of Home Affairs in 2004 under the GOI-UNDP Disaster Risk Management (DRM) program with an objective to build up a systematic inventory of equipments and skilled human resources IDRN is a nation-wide electronic inventory of resources that enlists equipment and human resources, collated from districts, states and national level line departments and agencies. It is currently monitored and maintained by NIDM The IDRN is a live system providing for updating of inventory once in every quarter. Entries into the inventory are made at district and State levels The network ensures quick access to resources to minimize response time in emergencies
-The system gives, at the touch of the button, location of specific equipments/ specialist resources as well as the controlling authority for that resource so that it can be mobilized for response in the shortest possible time -District Collectors/Magistrate are the authorized officials to get the latest information about disaster management resources available with various line departments/agencies and uploaded in the portal, using services of District Informatics Officers. .The database is available simultaneously at the district, state and national levels.