Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Disasters and Disaster Management Presented By Roman Saini
DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 1. Challenges in Disaster Management 2. Disaster Management Act 2005 3. DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM 4. National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM),2009 5. National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 6. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 7. Disasters in India during the year 2017
Course Structure B. DM in India 1 Challenges in DM 2. C. Disaster Management- 1. DM Prevention & 2. Emergency Response 3. 4. Recovery-Relief & 5. A. Introduction 1. Previous Year DM Act 2005,NDMA Guidelines 2010 DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Disasters in India during the year 2017 Questions Trend Introduction to Disaster Phenomena 2. Mitigation 3. 4. 5. India System Risk Reduction Mechanism-EWS 3. Disaster in i.Earthquakes ii. Cyclone li. I sunam v.Floods v.Droughts vi.Landslide Rehabilitation Community Based DM Use of Science & Technology in DM 6. 6. vii.Avalanches viii. Industrial Disaster ix.Epidemic 7.
CHALLENGES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions With the emergence of the modern welfare state and the 20th century trends of globalization, urbanization, large-scale migrations of human population and climate changes, the nature of crises has increased both in magnitude and complexity. There are numerous challenges for prevention, reduction and management of disaster in India. These can be explained as follows: 1. Climate Change And Global Warming The climatic changes happening due to global warming could have serious challenges in disaster management. It is resulting in unusual happenings. It has far reaching implications for managing disaster risk in India, as the frequency and intensity of flash floods, landslides, droughts, cyclones, and storm surges are expected to increase in upcoming decades.
2. Ever-growing Population Rapid population growth particularly in urban areas of developing nations is posing serious problems for disaster management. This phenomenon results in construction of apartments, buildings, industries, factories that do not follow safety laws e.g. building bye laws. The unplanned growth of urban areas makes response much more difficult. 3. Rapid Urbanization and Industrialisation Unsafe building practices in rapidly growing urban settlements constitute one of the India's greatest challenges for disaster management. Unsafe conditions in factories are also alarming for hazards. 4. Development Within High-risk Zones A major earthquake in any of the India's densely and heavily populated cities in seismic zones would be catastrophic in terms of fatalities. This is a serious threat to the lives and properties in the high risk zones of earthquake. 5. Environmental Degradation The unprecedented degradation of environment is expected to have severe impacts on the hydrological cycle, water resource, droughts, flood, drinking water, forest and ecosystems, sea level/coastal area losses of coastal wetlands and mangroves, food security, health and other related areas.
6. Fragile Institutions Disaster management authorities are yet to turn fully and proactively functional and lacking a proper framework for the implementation of the National Disaster Management Act, National Disaster Management Policy and the State Disaster Management Policy. 7. Weak Compliance of Policies Even as development in the country continues to overlook disaster vulnerability, the lack of a proper system to inspect constructions and to ensure their compliance with disaster mitigation guidelines, building codes and other development control regimes appear glaring. 8. Systemic Inefficiencies Influencing Processes Standard Operating Procedures are virtually non-existent and authorities concerned are unfamiliar with it. The State suffers from inadequate coordination among various government departments and other stakeholders. Absence of proper guidelines for preparation of disaster management plans at various levels and workable disaster management plans poses a major challenge.
Challenges in Future There is a growing need to look at disasters from a development perspective. Disasters can have devastating effect on communities and can significantly set back development efforts to a great extent. One of the glaring lacunae in the process of Disaster Management in India has been the overlooking of unnatural disasters. Current global situation also demands initiatives in managing the impact of unnatural disasters. Developments at the international level, particularly culminating on 9/11 have brought the issue of unnatural disasters at the forefront. The global community has recognized the serious consequences of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) warfare. In the field of public health, while science has secured a major victory over epidemics, new strains of viruses and drug resistant micro-organisms have emerged raising the sceptre of global pandemics of new and more deadly diseases. Similarly, while frequency of wars has declined, modern weapons and mass urbanization have increased manifold the human crisis caused by such conflicts.
The scourge of terrorism has created new types of crises and increasing dependence on communications and computer networks have increased the threat of newer emergencies in case these are disabled by accident or design. . Phenomena like modernization, information explosion, transnational migrations, and the economic interdependence among nations have all contributed to extending the impact of crisis situations over larger areas. Hence, unnatural disasters also remain a serious challenge for India to address in the near future
Disaster Management in India Emergence of Institutional Arrangement in India A permanent and institutionalized setup began in the decade of 1990s with set up of a disaster management cell under the Ministry of Agriculture, following the declaration of the decade of 1990 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction' (IDNDR) by the UN General Assembly. Following series of disasters such as Latur Earthquake (1993), Malpa Landslide (1994), Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) and Bhuj Earthquake (2001), a high powered Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture was constituted for drawing up a systematic, comprehensive and holistic approach towards disasters. There was a shift in policy from an approach of relief through financial aid to a holistic one for addressing disaster management. Consequently, the disaster management division was shifted under the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2002 and a hierarchical structure for disaster management evolved in India
Present Structure for Disaster Management in India The National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA) has been established at the centre, the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) at state and District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) at district level has been formalized In addition to this, the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMA) also functions at the Centre. The nodal ministries, as identified for different disaster types of function under the overall guidance of the Ministry of Home Affairs (nodal ministry for disaster management). This makes the stakeholders interact at different levels within the disaster management framework. Thus, the two structures co-exist at present. Firstly, the structure is hierarchical and functions at four levels centre, state, district and local. Each preceding level guides the activities and decision making at the next level in hierarchy. Secondly, it is a multi-stakeholder setup, .e., the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries, government departments and administrative bodies.